||(After arrival of
car) Credit terms whereby the allowable
days to make payment are determined by
the arrival date, not the shipment date,
of the car.
arrival of truck) Credit terms whereby
the allowable days to make payment are
determined by the arrival date, not the
shipment date, of the truck.
structure at either end of an arch or
bridge. The intermediary supports are
direction at right angles to the length
of the fibres and other longitudinal
elements of the wood.
freight) A credit term meaning that the
freight portion of an invoiced amount is
not subject to a discount.
substance used to bond two surfaces
||A substance that
is capable of bonding two materials
together by surface attachment. It
includes cements, mucilage, paste, and
date of invoice) A credit term meaning
that the allowable days to make payment
are determined by the date of the
invoice, not the shipment date or
arrival date of the material.
characteristically has relatively
constant cell size, well-developed
structural patterns, and stable physical
behavior; also called mature wood.
of forest crops by artificial methods,
such as planting or sowing on land where
trees have never grown.
||Any interval into
which the age range of trees, forests,
stands or forest types is divided for
classification and use. Forest
inventories commonly group trees into
20-year age class groups.
by exposure to the elements, as opposed
to being dried in a kiln.
||Lumber or other
wood products that have been either
dried by exposure to natural atmospheric
conditions outdoors or in an unheated
shed or dried to equilibrium with the
surrounding atmosphere. Moisture content
of air-dried wood fiber depends on
relative humidity, temperature, and
length of drying period. Also referred
to as air seasoned and contrasts with
kiln-dried (KD) lumber.
that was dried, usually outside, to an
equilibrium moisture content with the
air it was exposed to.
||Timber dried by
exposure to air in a yard or shed,
without artificial heat (also see
amount of wood that can be removed from
a landowner's property during a certain
time span, without exceeding the net
growth during that same time on the
|Along the grain
parallel with the length of the fibres
and other longitudinal elements of the
top bevel with raker (ATB/R)
design for a circular saw blade where
four alternately beveled teeth are
followed by a raker too to remove debris
from the cut.
||A device for
connecting timber members to concrete or
different properties when measured along
its different axes.
||Layer of wood
developed by a tree during a given year;
same as annual or seasonal increment.
layer of growth that a tree puts on in
one year. The annual growth rings can be
seen in the end grain of lumber.
||High line regular
board and dimension grades that include
tighter restrictions on certain
appearance characteristics, particularly
shaft, driven by the tool's motor that
turns blades or other cutting tools.
intersection of two surfaces, eg. The
face and edge of a piece of wood .
short rectangular saw with fine teeth
and a rigid "spine" along the top of the
blade. A backsaw is used for fine
joinery work such as cutting dovetail
joints. Also see Dozuki.
||Timber sawn so
that the growth rings are inclined at
less than 45 degrees to the wide face.
cut in felling a tree. Made on the
opposite side of the direction of fall
||A delivery by
tractor-trailer originates from where
the trailer is loaded, the load is
delivered to a destination, then the
trucker returns home. If the return is
also a paying load to be delivered to
the vicinity of the trucker's home, that
load is called a backhaul. If the
trucker returns home empty, that run is
called a "deadhead."
back (order) A trading term referring to
an order in which both the buy side and
the sell side occur simultaneously.
||An evolution in
sawmill technology that uses a thinner
band saw blade (less kerf therefore less
sawdust waste) than a circular saw. A
bandsaw also has teeth on both sides
that allows cuts to be made in two
directions instead of just one,
improving efficiency and productivity.
of inner living bark and outer dead
bark, it consists of tissues in the
cylindrical axis of a tree outside the
protective layer of the tree. Severely
damaged bark on a tree is a defect that
can lower the value of the its logs. At
the sawmill, logs are first debarked,
then slabs are cut off leaving a
rectangular or square cant to be cut
into lumber. There are two main types of
debarkers: Rosserhead and Ring
debarkers. Before raw bark is sold as
bark mulch, it is ground in a tub
grinder (hammermill) to give it the
proper texture and consistency. Bark
quality is a function of color.
outermost, protective layer, of a tree
composed of dead cork and other
area of a tree, in square feet, measured
at breast height. Used as a method of
measuring the volume of timber in a
An administrative term describing the
the practices necessary to establish
regeneration of the desired species at
specified densities and stocking, free
from competing vegetation, and within a
certain time limit. ;2. Silvicultural
activities required by law. See also
||A small rounded,
raised profile, routed along the edge of
member, other than a triangulated frame,
which supports load primarily by its
internal resistance to bending.
member that supports a transversely
framing member placed to support a load.
Also called a girder.
||A sub floor
timber beam placed across piers or
stringers and supporting floor joists
metal or wooden peg that fits into a
hole in a workbench and is used to hold
a workpiece in place. The peg can be
round or square and sometimes fitted
with special springs to hold them in
||A measure of the
resistance of wood to an applied bending
stress which is a combination of three
primary stresses, i.e., compressive,
tensile, and shear stresses.
Management Practices (BMP)
series of forest practices thought to be
the best possible for a specific region
and forest type. BMP are highly promoted
by the American Forest and Paper
Association's Sustainable Forestry
||Any angle not at
90 degrees. Also, a tool for marking
such an angle.
angled cut through a board.
warehouse-type lumber and building
material stores catering to
do-it-yourself (DIY) shoppers. Home
Depot and Lowes are examples.
breaking down of timber by natural or
biological agents such as fungi and
material in a forest. Refers to both
merchantable material and material left
following a conventional logging
operation. In the broad sense, all of
the organic material on a given area; in
the narrow sense, burnable vegetation to
be used for fuel in a combustion system
boilers burn bark, sander dust and other
wood-related scrap not usable in product
production. Also called "hogged fuel"
boilers, biomass boilers make steam and
heat for mill use.
||The notch in a
rafter that rests on the top plate of a
on the surface of wood that has numerous
rounded areas resembling small eyes.
||A figure on wood,
usually maple and a few other species.
The figure is composed of many small BB
size rounded areas resembling a birds
eye. The figuring is most common on
plain and rotary sawn lumber.
butt joint that is reinforced with a
football shaped "biscuit". The biscuits
are usually made from compressed pieces
of wood, usually birch. When a biscuit
comes into contact with glue in the
joint it swells creating a tighter
joint. Also called a Plate Joint.
||Tree or trees
felled by wind. Also known as windfall
fungus discoloration, mostly bluish, but
somtimes grayish, blackish, or brownish
in appearance; found mostly in sapwood,
common in pines and in the warmer months
of summer. At one time this was thought
to be a serious defect; now it is used
as high-quality interior finish
||The effect of a
timber on the performance of a machine
when the timber is processed.
||1. A piece of
sawn, hewn, or dressed timber of greater
width than thickness. Usually 19 mm to
38 mm thick and 75 mm or more wide. 2.
Manufactured products supplied as rigid
or semi-rigid sheets, eg. Fibreboard and
common volumetric unit of measure in the
lumber industry, equivalent to a piece
of wood 1Ó thick, 12Ó wide, and 1Ó long.
||A unit of
measurement of lumber represented by a
board which is 1 foot long, 12 inches
wide, and 1 inch thick or its metric
equivalent. In practice, the board foot
calculation for lumber 1 inch or more in
thickness is based on its nominal
thickness and width and the actual
volume of lumber that measures 1" x 12"
x 12". The number of board feet in a log
is estimated using one of three log
scales: Scribner, Doyle, or
International Rule. The standard used in
Massachusetts is the International Rule.
The actual yield of a log after sawn
into lumber is often greater than the
estimated yield. Both logs and lumber
are sold by the thousand board feet or
|Board Foot -
Related tip and Formula
||A form of wood
measurement, where one board foot equals
the volume of a board 1 inch thick, 12
inches wide, and 12 inches long.
term indicating that the unit of measure
being used is the board foot.
||The lower section
of the trunk of a tree from the ground
to the first limb or branch. Some
loggers and whole tree operations delimb
trees leaving only the bole or stem
portion of the tree. If chipped in a
whole tree chipper, the result a
"cleaner" chip with fewer leaves,
sticks, or pine needles. Tree stem that
has roughly grown to a substantial
thickness, capable of yielding
sawtimber, veneer logs, or large poles
logs to be sawn for lumber or used for
veneer. Also: 1) Any short log, as a
pulpwood bolt or pulpwood stick; 2) Any
short stick, generally between 2 and 8
feet long; 3) Also referred to as a
||Wood pulp or
residue that weigh 2,000 pounds at zero
percent moisture content. Also known as
an ovendry ton
term in veneering, where successive
pieces of veneer from a flitch are
arranged side by side. A properly done
bookmatch will resemble a mirror image
of the opposite side.
||The hole for the
arbor in a circular saw blade.
botanical names of species and their
relationship to trade names are defined
in AS 2543, Nomenclature of Australian
Timbers and AS 1148, Nomenclature of
Commercial Timbers imported into
||Moisture which is
closely bound to the cell wall
constituents of wood.
curvature in the longitudinal direction
of a board causing the wide face to move
away from a flat plane.
||A lumber defect
referring to deviation from a straight
line drawn end to end along the wide
face of a piece of lumber.
- Related Article
defective piece of lumber that has
warped along its length.
||A built-up beam
with solid timber flanges (a) and
plywood or wood-base panel product webs
corner joint made up of interlocking
structural members that normally do not
support gravity loads but are required
to provide lateral stability to other
structural members or to transfer
horizontal loads to the supports.
small finishing nail up to 1" long.
||A condition that
causes some pieces of wood to break
suddenly and completely with very little
splintering. The break or failure
usually occurs under comparatively small
loads and deformations.
installed between floor joists to
stiffen floor and distribute live loads.
Also called cross-bridging.
||Measure of the
amount of heat required to raise 1 pound
of water 1 degree Fahrenheit. Amount of
latent heat available to be released
when a substance undergoes combustion.
a felled tree into shorter specified log
lengths; rough cutting logs for length.
||To gather trees
or logs into small piles for subsequent
skidding by other equipment. To assemble
logs together to form a load for
A hard, woody outgrowth on a tree, more
or less rounded in form, usually
resulting from the entwined growth of a
cluster of buds. Such burls are the
source of the highly figured burl
veneers used for purely ornamental
purposes. 2) In lumber or veneer, a
localised severe distortion of the grain
generally rounded in outline.
irregular growths that form on the
trunks and roots of trees. Burls are
highly sought after for the incredible
veneer they yield.
source of the highly figured burl
veneers used exclusively for ornamental
purposes, it is a bulge formed on the
trunk or branches of a tree by abnormal
||A raised ridge of
metal used on a scraper to remove wood.
of a tree. Large end of a log
||The first cut
above the stump of a tree.
end joint formed by abutting the squared
ends of two pieces.
joint where the edges of two boards are
placed against each other.
log cut above the stump. Also known as
||Decay or rot
characteristically confined to the base
or lower bole of a tree
Leg - Related Article
leg used on Queen Anne furniture. The
cabriole leg is characterized by
graceful curves and a shape that
resembles an animal leg.
||To make the
surface of paper smooth by pressing it
between steel rollers during
vertical curve built into a beam or
truss to offset load deflection or to
improve its appearance.
||A thin layer of
tissue between the bark and wood that
repeatedly subdivides to form new wood
and bark cells.
layer of cells between the woody part of
the tree (heartwood) and the bark.
Division of cambium cells results in
diamteter growth of the tree through
formation of wood cells (xylem) and
inner bark (phloem).
actively growing, layer of a tree. The
cambium is one cell thick and resides
between the sapwood and the phloem. It
repeatedly divides itself to form new
wood and causes the tree to grow and
forest layer made up of the crowns of
the tallest trees.
||1. Log that is
squared on two or more sides and to be
sawn further. 2. A log is first debarked
then the rounded slab or outside portion
of the log is cut off by the sawyer. The
remaining square or rectangular portion
of the log is called a cant. Lumber is
cut from the cant. The more pieces of
lumber cut, the more sawdust (waste
byproduct ) is produced, reducing the
log yield of marktable board feet.
body of a piece of furniture with a box
like shape. (I.E. A kitchen cabinet)