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Blunting Effect
Boring
Comments
Common Names
Common Uses
Countries of Distribution
Cutting Resistance
Distribution Overview
Drying Defects
Ease of Drying
Environmental Profile
Family Name
Gluing
Grain
Heartwood Color
Kiln Schedules
Light-Induced Color Change
Luster
Mortising
Moulding
Movement in Service
Nailing
Natural Durability
Numerical Data
Odor
Planing
Polishing
References
Regions of Distribution
Resistance to Impregnation
Response to Hand Tools
Sapwood Color
Scientific Name
Screwing
Silica Content
Staining
Steam Bending
Strength Properties
Texture
Trade Name
Tree Identification
Tree Size

Scientific Name
Aningeria altissima

Trade Name
Anegre

Family Name
Sapotaceae

Wood Image 1

Common Names
Anegre, Aniegre, Aningeria, Aningeria blanc, Aningre, Asamfona, Kali, Kararo, Landojan, Landosan, M'boul, Mukalati, Mukali, Mukangu, Muna, Mutoke, N'kali, Nkalate, Nkalati, Osan, Tanganyika nuss, Tutu

Regions of Distribution
Africa

Countries of Distribution [VIEW MAP]
Angola, Benin, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Nigeria, Sudan, Togo, Uganda, Zaire

Common Uses
Bedroom suites, Boat building, Boxes and crates, Building construction, Building materials, Cabin construction, Cabinetmaking, Canoes, Chairs, Chests, Concealed parts (Furniture), Construction, Desks, Dining-room furniture, Domestic flooring, Dowell pins, Dowells, Drawer sides, Drum sticks, Excelsior, Factory construction, Factory flooring, Fine furniture, Floor lamps, Flooring, Furniture , Furniture components, Furniture squares or stock, Furniture, Hatracks, Heavy construction, Joinery, Kitchen cabinets, Lifeboats, Light construction, Living-room suites, Matches, Millwork, Mine timbers, Musical instruments , Office furniture, Organ pipes, Parquet flooring, Piano keys, Pianos , Plywood, Posts, Pulp/Paper products, Railroad ties, Shipbuilding, Turnery, Vehicle parts, Veneer: decorative

Environmental Profile
Vulnerable
Rare
Vulnerable in parts of its natural habitat
Status unknown in many of its growth areas
Rare in parts of its natural range (population is at risk)
Data source is World Conservation Monitoring Center

Rare in Ghana. Vulnerable in Ivory Coast. Status unknown in Congo, Ethiopia, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Sierra Leone, and Sudan

Distribution Overview
The genus is widespread in tropical Africa, particularly common in parts of East Africa from Guinea to Ethiopia, as well as Zambia and Gabon.

Heartwood Color
Red
Brown
Pink
White
Yellow
Green/grey
Orange
Pale red to pink
Pale brown
White to cream
Yellow to golden-yellow to orange
Reddish brown
Mostly indistinct in color from sapwood
Greenish to greyish
Darkens slightly upon exposure


Sapwood Color
White
Brown
Pink
Red
Yellow
White to yellow
Pale pink to reddish-brown
Not clearly differentiated from heartwood


Grain
Even
Closed
Figure
Wavy
Fiddleback (figure)
Mottled (figure)

Occasionally wavy
Mottled figure
Fiddleback figure
Bee's Wing


Texture
Medium
Fine
Coarse
Medium to coarse
Fine
Medium
Fine to medium


Luster
Medium
High
Low
Lustrous


Natural Durability
Susceptible to insect attack
Perishable
Non-resistant to termites
Non-durable
Non-resistant to powder post beetles
Moderately durable
Non-resistant to marine borers
Susceptible to attack from termites (Isoptera)
Sapwood is susceptible to wood staining fungal attack
Perishable
Pinworms (ambrosia beetles) may be present in the felled log
Susceptible to attack from powder post (Lyctid & Bostrychid) beetles
Pinworms (ambrosia beetles) often present in the standing tree
Moderately durable
Very little natural resistance
Susceptible to marine borer attack
Susceptible to attack by fungi and termites
Pinworms (ambrosia beetles) are commonly present
Non durable


Odor
Has a taste
Odor similar to cedar
No specific taste


Silica Content
Siliceous
Sometimes siliceous


Light-Induced Color Change
Darker


Kiln Schedules
UK=E US=T6D2/T3D1 Fr=5
T6-D4(4/4);T3-D1(8/4) US Schedule E; United Kingdom


Drying Defects
Discoloration
Seasons without checking or twisting
Prone to blue stain during initial stages of drying
No surface checking


Ease of Drying
Fairly Easy
Rapidly
Reconditioning Treatement
Easy
Rapid extraction, conversion and drying is recommended
Dries rapidly and well, with little degrade or defect


Tree Identification
Bole/stem form is buttressed
Bole/stem form is straight
Bole/stem form is cylindrical


Tree Size
Bole length is 20-30 m
Tree height is 50-60 m
Trunk diameter is 100-150 cm
Tree height is 30-40 m
Trunk diameter is 200-250 cm


Comments
General finishing qualities are rated as good

Blunting Effect
Little
High to severe
Blunting effect on machining is slight
Blunting edges rapidly and severely due to silica content in material


Boring
Fair to good results
Fairly difficult to very difficult
Fairly easy to very easy
Moderately easy
Adequate support is necessary when boring to prevent chipping


Cutting Resistance
Easy to saw
Fairly Difficult to Very Difficult to saw
Cutting Resistance with dry wood is easy
Responds readily to carving operations
Cutting resistance with dry wood is variable


Gluing
Fair to Good Results
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Good gluing properties
Easy to glue


Mortising
Fairly Difficult to Very Difficult
Support material during mortising to prevent break out.


Moulding
Very Good to Excellent Results
Fair to Good Results
Good finishing results


Movement in Service
Fair to Good Stability - Medium Movement
Excellent Stability - Small Movement
Retains shape well after seasoning
Dimensionally stable


Nailing
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Fair to Good Results
Good nail holding properties
Easy to nail


Planing
Poor to Very Poor Results
Fairly Difficult to Very Difficult
Planes to a poor finish
Rather difficult to plane a smooth finish


Resistance to Impregnation
Permeable heartwood
Permeable sapwood
Heartwood is permeable
Moderately permeable to preservative treatment


Response to Hand Tools
Easy to Work
Responds Readily
Easy to machine
Responds well to hand tools but has moderate blunting on cutting edges


Screwing
Fair to Good Results
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Good screwing properties


Steam Bending
Fair to Good Results
Moderate steam bending characteristics


Polishing
Fair to Good Results
Good finishing characteristics
Fairly good polishing characteristics


Staining
Fair to Good Results
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Good staining qualities


Strength Properties
Max. crushing strength = medium
Hardness (side grain) = soft
Density (dry weight) = 31-37 lbs/cu. ft.
Bending strength (MOR) = medium
Shrinkage, Tangential = very small
Shrinkage, Radial = very small
Shearing strength (parallel to grain) = low
Bending strength (MOR) = low
Bending strength (MOR) = high
Toughness-Hammer drop (Impact Strength) = very low
Toughness-Hammer drop (Impact Strength) = low
Shrinkage, Tangential = small
Shrinkage, Tangential = moderate
Shrinkage, Radial = small
Shrinkage, Radial = large
Modulus of Elasticity (stiffness) = very low
Modulus of Elasticity (stiffness) = low
Medium weight
High in density
Hardness = medium
Density (dry weight) = 38-45 lbs/cu. ft.
Compression strength (parallel to grain) = medium

It compares favorably with Teak, which also has high bending strength.It resists denting and marring about as well as white oak or birch

Numerical Data
ItemGreenDryEnglish
Bending Strength855913043psi
Density35lbs/ft3
Hardness1005lbs
Impact Strength22inches
Maximum Crushing Strength41236507psi
Shearing Strength1560psi
Stiffness115614201000 psi
Specific Gravity0.370.42
Weight4034lbs/ft3
Radial Shrinkage3%
Tangential Shrinkage6%
Volumetric Shrinkage12%
ItemGreenDryMetric
Bending Strength601917kg/cm2
Density560kg/m3
Hardness455kg
Impact Strength55cm
Maximum Crushing Strength289457kg/cm2
Shearing Strength109kg/cm2
Stiffness81991000 kg/cm2
Specific Gravity0.370.42
Weight641544kg/m3
Radial Shrinkage3%
Tangential Shrinkage6%

References
Bolza, E., Keating, W.G.,1972,African Timbers - the Properties, Uses and Characteristics of 700 Species,C.S.I.R.O. Div. of Building Research

Chudnoff, M.,1984,Tropical Timbers of the World,U.S.A. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products,Laboratory, Madison.

Eggeling, W.J.,1940,Indigenous Trees of Uganda,Govt. Printer Entebbe Uganda

Erfurth, T., Rusche, H.,1976,The Marketing of Tropical Wood A. Wood Species from African Moist Forests,F.A.O. Forestry Department

France - C.T.F.T./C.T.B.,1982,Guide pour le Choix des Essences Deroulables-pour la fabrication du,contreplaque,C.T.F.T./C.T.B. France

France - C.T.F.T.,1973,Investigations and Tests carried out on Tropical Timber by several,Research Laboratories,CTFT

HMSO. 1981. Handbook of Hardwoods, 2nd Edition. Revised by R. H. Farmer. Department of the Environment, Building Research Establishment, Princes Risborough Laboratory, Princes Risborough, Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire.

I.U.F.R.O.,1973,Veneer Species of the World,Assembled at F.P.L. Madison on behalf of I.U.F.R.O. Working Party on,Slicing and Veneer Cutting

ITTO. 1986. Tropical Timber Atlas, Volume 1 - Africa. International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) and Centre Technique Forestier Tropical (CTFT, 45bis, Avenue de la Belle Gabrielle, Nogent-sur-Marne Cedex, France.

Kaiser, J. 1990. Anegre. Wood of the Month Annual. Supplement to Wood and Wood Products, September, 1990, Page 18A.

Keay, R.W.J. 1989. Trees of Nigeria. Revised Version of Nigerian Trees. Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Lincoln, W. A. 1986. World Woods in Color. Linden Publishing Co. Inc., Fresno, California.

Patterson, D.N.,1963,The strength of Kenya timbers, their derivation and application,Kenya Forestry Department Research Bulletin,No.23

Tack, C.H.,1969,Uganda Timbers,Govt. Printer Uganda

Takahashi, A.,1978,Compilation of Data on the Mechanical Properties of Foreign Woods (Part,III) Africa,Shimane University, Japan, Research Report on Foreign Wood No. 7

Timber Development Association,1948,Some New Timbers and Their Uses No. 34,Timber Development Association Limited, London [TRADA]

Uganda Forest Department,1954,Alstonia,Uganda Forestry Department Timber Leaflet,No.2

Uganda Forest Department,1954,The Mechanical Properties of some Ugandan Timbers,Uganda Forest Department Timber Leaflet,No.1

Uganda Forest Department,1956,Osan,Uganda Forestry Department Timber Leaflet,No.28

Uganda Forest Department,1969,The Shrinkage of Some Ugandan Timbers,Uganda Forestry Department Timber Leaflet,No.47

WCMC. 1992. Conservation Status Listing - Trees and Timbers of the World. World Conservation Monitoring Center-Plants Programme, Cambridge, CB3 ODL, United Kingdom.

Wimbush, S.H.,1950,Catalogue of Kenya Timbers,Govt. Printer Nairobi Kenya








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