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Blunting Effect
Boring
Carving
Comments
Common Names
Common Uses
Corrosive Properties
Countries of Distribution
Cutting Resistance
Distribution Overview
Drying Defects
Ease of Drying
Environmental Profile
Family Name
Gluing
Grain
Heartwood Color
Kiln Schedules
Luster
Mortising
Moulding
Movement in Service
Nailing
Natural Durability
Numerical Data
Odor
Painting
Planing
Polishing
Product Sources
References
Regions of Distribution
Resistance to Impregnation
Response to Hand Tools
Routing & Recessing
Sanding
Sapwood Color
Scientific Name
Screwing
Staining
Steam Bending
Strength Properties
Texture
Trade Name
Tree Identification
Tree Size
Turning
Varnishing
Veneering Qualities

Scientific Name
Quercus robur

Trade Name
European oak

Family Name
Fagaceae

Wood Image 1

Common Names
Austrian oak, Chene, Common English oak, Eiche, Eik, English oak, European oak, European white oak, French oak, Penduculate, Pendunculate oak, Polish oak, Quercia, Rovere, Skogsek, Slavonian oak, Valhynian oak, Yugoslavian oak

Regions of Distribution
Africa, Eastern Europe, Mediterranean Sea Region, Oceania and S.E. Asia, Western Europe

Countries of Distribution [VIEW MAP]
Austria, Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Germany, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Slovakia, United Kingdom, Yugoslavia

Common Uses
Boat building (general), Boat building, Boat building: framing, Building materials, Cabinetmaking, Canoes, Carvings, Chairs, Chests, Coffins, Concealed parts (Furniture), Cooperages, Decorative veneer, Desks, Dining-room furniture, Domestic flooring, Dowell pins, Dowells, Drawer sides, Exterior trim & siding, Exterior uses, Figured veneer, Fine furniture, Floor lamps, Flooring, Flooring: commercial heavy traffic, Flooring: industrial heavy traffic, Foundation posts, Furniture , Furniture components, Furniture squares or stock, Furniture, Hatracks, Heavy construction, Interior construction, Interior trim, Joinery (external): ground contact, Joinery, Kitchen cabinets, Lifeboats, Light construction, Living-room suites, Lock gates, Marine construction, Millwork, Mine timbers, Moldings, Musical instruments, Office furniture, Pallets, Paneling , Paneling, Parquet flooring, Posts, Railroad ties, Sills, Tables, Truck bodies, Turnery, Vats, Vehicle parts, Veneer, Veneer: decorative, Wheel spokes, Wheels

Environmental Profile
Status has not been officially assessed


Distribution Overview
European oak is native to Europe, N. Africa, and W. Asia. It is more abundant in France, Poland, Yugoslavia, and the Baltic countries. European oak is the most common forest tree in Great Britain, especially Wales. It is found in pure stands, and in mixed forests where it is often the dominant species. The species has also naturalized locally in southeastern Canada and northeastern United States, and is also planted in the southeastern and Pacific states. The tree is cultivated in moist soils, and is usually found along roadsides and on the edge of forests.

Heartwood Color
Red
Brown
Yellow
Brown
Yellow to golden-yellow to orange
Pale brown
Yellowish brown
White to cream
Light tan to deep brown


Sapwood Color
White
Paler than heartwood
Well defined

The distinct sapwood is the same but a lighter color of the heartwood. It is about 1 to 2 inches (2.5 to 5 cm) wide.

Grain
Figure
Distinct (figure)
Straight
Stripe (figure)
Growth rings (figure)
Even
Rays (figure)
Other (figure)

Distinct and very fine figure
Striped figure
Straight
Clear growth rings (figure)
Rays figure
Other figure
Generally straight, but not always


Broad rays produce a silver grain figure on quarter sawn surfaces.
May be irregular or cross dependent on growing conditions.

Texture
Fine
Coarse
Medium to coarse

Plain sawn oak exhibits a distinct growth-ring figure like other ring-porous hardwoods.

Luster
Lustrous
Slightly lustrous

Wood structure and quality are heavily influenced by growth conditions. Typically the wood has alternating bands of large-pored early wood and dense late wood, but timber from slow growing trees may have very narrow late wood zones, and are therefore soft and light in weight. Central European oak trees are reported to grow slowly and relatively evenly and produce wood of uniform color and straight grain, while wood from northern Europe is typically harder and tougher.

Natural Durability
Non-resistant to marine borers
Non-resistant to pinhole borers
Non-resistant to termites
Durable
Very durable
Susceptible to attack from powder post (Lyctid & Bostrychid) beetles
Heartwood resistant to decay

Logs and green lumber are susceptible to attack by ambrosia beetles (pinhole-borer). The sapwood is vulnerable to attack by powder-post beetles and the common furniture beetle.

Odor
No specific smell or taste


Corrosive Properties
Reacts with metals


Kiln Schedules
Dry at a slow speed
UK=C US=T3C2/T3C1 Fr=3
US=T3-C2/T1-C1
UK=C


Drying Defects
Moderate end spitting
Moderate surface checking
Severe collapse and honeycomb
Moderate twist/warp
Warping can be expected
Slight end splitting
Honeycombing possible
Expect splits
Checking

A yellow stain, which eventually disappears, is also common during drying.

Ease of Drying
Rapidly
Reconditioning Treatement
Difficult
Shrinkage is high
Dries very slowly

Subject to degrade especially during the initial drying stages

Tree Identification
Bole/stem form is straight


Tree Size
Forest grown trees are reported to produce straight, clear boles that are sometimes up to 50 feet (15 m) in length.

Product Sources
Supplies of the brown variety of European oak is limited since it is in high demand for special uses and effects. Price is in the high range when it is imported into the US. Oaks native to the United States are usually substituted for the common type of English oak since they have the same uses.

Availability in long lengths, wide boards and in the form of veneers is variable on the European market. Prices are in the medium to expensive range.

Comments
General finishing qualities are rated as good

The wood is described as acidic and may cause corrosion in some metals, such as iron and steel, which come in contact with it. Vapors from green material may also be very corrosive.

Blunting Effect
Little
Blunting effect on machining is moderate
Moderate effect
Blunting effect on machining is variable

Denser wood may blunt cutting tools at a more rapid rate than lighter woods.

Boring
Fairly easy to very easy


Carving
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Fair to Good Results


Cutting Resistance
Easy to saw
Cutting Resistance with green wood is easy
Satisfactory sawing properties
Cutting Resistance with dry wood is easy

Working properties vary with density

Gluing
Fair to Good Results
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Easy to glue
Good properties


Mortising
Fair to Good Results
Fairly Easy to Very Easy


Moulding
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Fair to Good Results
Good finishing results


Movement in Service
Medium
Small
Moderate dimensional stability after seasoning
Large


Nailing
Poor to Very Poor Results
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Possible if prebored
Holds nails well
Difficult to nail
Pre-boring recommended


Planing
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Fair to Good Results
Planes to a poor finish

A reduced angle of 20 degrees is recommended in planing material containing cross and irregular grain.

Resistance to Impregnation
Resistant sapwood
Resistant heartwood
Heartwood is highly resistant
Sapwood is permeable


Response to Hand Tools
Responds Readily
Easy to Work
Variable qualities
Moderate working qualities
Difficult to machine
Easy to machine

Degree of difficulty in working with hand tools is reported to depend upon the density of the wood. It ranges from medium to high.

Routing & Recessing
Fairly Easy to Very Easy


Sanding
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Fair to Good Results
Very Good to Excellent Results
Good characteristics


Screwing
Poor to Very Poor Results
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Screwing yields good results
Possible if prebored
Requires pre-boring
Holds screws firmly
Easy to screw


Turning
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Fair to Good Results
Responds satisfactorily

Wood working properties are reported to vary with density

Veneering Qualities
No drying degrade. Dries flat without splitting
Moderately easy to veneer

European oak trees stained brown by the beef-steak fungus become the popular Brown oak. These are converted into highly decorative veneers which have naturally stained, attractively varied colors that are impossible to match with any artificial process

Steam Bending
Very good
Good

Wood moisture content should be reduced to 25 percent before steam bending, since green material has a tendency to rupture on the inner surface. The bent material should be dried slowly during the setting period, and to prevent staining, the steamed wood should be kept away from iron or iron compounds.

Painting
Good results


Polishing
Fair to Good Results
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Good results
High finish


Staining
Reacts with Iron to discolour wood
Finish is generally good
Good characteristics


Varnishing
Good results
Well defined


Strength Properties
Density (dry weight) = 46-52 lbs/cu. ft.
Modulus of Elasticity (stiffness) = low
Max. crushing strength = medium
Bending strength (MOR) = medium
Shearing strength (parallel to grain) = low
Density (dry weight) = 38-45 lbs/cu. ft.
Hardness (side grain) = soft
Shrinkage, Tangential = large
Work to Maximum Load = very low
Shrinkage, Tangential = very small
Shrinkage, Radial = very small
Shrinkage, Radial = moderate
Toughness-Hammer drop (Impact Strength) = low
Shrinkage, Tangential = small
Shrinkage, Radial = small
Shrinkage, Radial = large
Shrinkage, Radial = fairly large
Shearing strength (parallel to grain) = medium
Modulus of Elasticity (stiffness) = very low
Modulus of Elasticity (stiffness) = medium
Max. crushing strength = low
Heavy
Fairly hard
Density (dry weight) = 31-37 lbs/cu. ft.
Dense
Crushing strength = high
Bending strength (MOR) = high

English brown oak is the product of trees that have been stained brown by the beef-steak fungus (Fistulina hepatica ). Seasoning the wood is reported to kill the fungus. This variety of English oak is highly desired as a decorative wood for paneling and joinery.

Numerical Data
ItemGreenDryEnglish
Bending Strength878714081psi
Density44lbs/ft3
Hardness1122lbs
Impact Strength3331inches
Maximum Crushing Strength38176718psi
Shearing Strength1838psi
Stiffness130815441000 psi
Work to Maximum Load710inch-lbs/in3
Specific Gravity0.65
Weight4342lbs/ft3
Radial Shrinkage4%
Tangential Shrinkage8%
ItemGreenDryMetric
Bending Strength617990kg/cm2
Density705kg/m3
Hardness508kg
Impact Strength8378cm
Maximum Crushing Strength268472kg/cm2
Shearing Strength129kg/cm2
Stiffness911081000 kg/cm2
Work to Maximum Load0.490.70cm-kg/cm3
Specific Gravity0.65
Weight689673kg/m3
Radial Shrinkage4%

References
Armstrong, F.H.,1960,The Strength Properties of Timber,Forest Products Research Laboratory, London Bulletin,No.45

Banks, C.H., Schoeman, J.P., Otto, K.P.,1977,The Mechanical Properties of Timbers with particular reference to South,Africa,South African Forestry Research Institute Bulletin,(Ed.,Schoeman, J.P. 1973 & Otto K.P. 1976,No.48

Banks, C.H.,1954,The Mechanical Properties of Timbers with Particular Reference to those,grown in the Union of South Africa,Journal of the South African Forestry Association,No. 24 pp.44-65,[South,African Forestry Journal]

Brazier, J.D., Franklin, G.L.,1967,An Appraisal of the Wood Characteristics and Potential Uses of some,Nicaraguan Timbers,FAO for Forest Products Research Laboratory, Princes Risborough

British Woodworking Federation. 1995. Which Wood . Published by the British Woodworking Federation, Broadway House, Tothill Street, London.

Brown, W.H.,1978,Timbers of the World, No. 6 Europe,TRADA, Red Booklet Series

Burgess, H.J.,1956,The timbers of Keledang and Terap,Malayan Forester 19(1) pp36-40

Clifford, N.,1953,Commercial Hardwoods - Their Characteristics Identification and,Utilization,Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons Ltd. London

Clifford, N.,1957,Timber Identification for the Builder and Architect,Leonard Hill (Books) LTD. London

Constantine, Jr. A.J. 1975. Know Your Woods - A Complete Guide to Trees, Woods, and Veneers. Revised Edition. Revised by H.J. Hobbs. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.

Farmer, R.H.,1972,Handbook of Hardwoods,HMSO

Findlay, W.P.K.,1938,The Natural Resistance to Decay of some Empire Timbers,Empire Forestry Journal,17,pp249 - 259

Findlay, W.P.K.,1975,Timber: Properties and Uses,Crosby Lockwood Staples London,224PP

Forest Products Research Laboratory, U.K.,1937,A Handbook of Home-Grown Timbers,HMSO

Forest Products Research Laboratory, U.K.,1967,The Steam Bending Properties of various timbers,Forest Products Research Laboratory, Princes Risborough, Leaflet,No.45

Forests Products Research Laboratory, U.K.,1956,A Handbook of Hardwoods,Forest Products Research Laboratory, Princes Risborough, Department of,Science and Industrial Research, Building Research Establishment

Harrar, E.S.,1942,Some Physical Properties of Modern Cabinet Woods 3. Directional and Volume,Shrinkage,Tropical Woods,9(71, pp26-32

HMSO. 1981. Handbook of Hardwoods, 2nd Edition. Revised by R.H. Farmer, Department of the Environment, Building Research Establishment, Princes Risborough Laboratory, Princes Risborough, Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire.

Howard, A.L.,1948,A Manual of Timbers of the World.,Macmillan & Co. Ltd. London 3rd ed.

I.U.F.R.O.,1973,Veneer Species of the World,Assembled at F.P.L. Madison on behalf of I.U.F.R.O. Working Party on,Slicing and Veneer Cutting

Jackson, A. and D. Day. 1991. Good Wood Handbook - The Woodworker's Guide to Identifying, Selecting and Using the Right Wood. HarperCollins Publishers, London.

Kline, M. 1982. Quercus robur - English oak. In A Guide to Useful Woods of the World. Flynn Jr., J.H., Editor. King Philip Publishing Co., Portland, Maine. 1994. Page 307-308.

Kukachka, B.F.,1962,Characters of Some Imported Woods,U.S.A. Department of Agriculture, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison,,Foreign Wood Series,No.2242

Laidlaw, W.B.R. 1960. Guide to British Hardwoods. Published by Leonard Hill [Books] Limited, 9 Eden Street, N.W.1, London.

Lavers, G.M. 1966. The Strength Properties of Timbers. Forest Products Research Bulletin, No. 50. Ministry of Technology, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London.

Lincoln, W.A. 1986. World Woods in Color. Linden Publishing Co. Inc, Fresno, California

Little, E.L. 1980. The Audobon Society Field Guide to North American Trees - Western Region. Published by Arthur A. Knopf, New York.

Patterson, D.,1988,Commercial Timbers of the World, 5th Edition,Gower Technical Press

Rendle, B.J.,1969,World Timbers (3 Vols.,Ernest Benn Ltd. London

Rijsdijk, L.F. and Laming, P.B.,1994,Physical and Related Properties of 145 Timbers, Information for,Practice,TNO Building and Construction Research Centre for Timber Research Kluwer,Academic Publishers

Smith, D.N.,1959,The Natural Durability of Timber,Forest Products Research Laboratory, Princes Risborough, Building Research,Establishment Record,No.30

Stone, H.,1924,The Timbers of Commerce and their Identification,William Rider & Sons Ltd. London

T.R.A.D.A.,1942,Home-grown timber trees - their characteristics, cultivation and Uses,TRADA

Thomas, A.V.,1964,Timbers Used in the Boat Building Industry A Survey,Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Forest Products Research,Laboratory

Timber Development Association Ltd.,1955,World Timbers (3 Vols.,Timber Development Association Ltd.

Titmuss, F.H.,1965,Commercial Timbers of the World,Technical Press Ltd., London, 3rd edition

WCMC. 1992. Conservation Status Listing - Trees and Timbers of the World. World Conservation Monitoring Center-Plants Programme, Cambridge, CB3 ODL, United Kingdom.








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