Search for  
 
 

top

Clickingany heading in the main data area (at right) will scroll the page backto this top position.

Use the following links tojump to the associated section in the main data.

Blunting Effect
Boring
Carving
Comments
Common Names
Common Uses
Corrosive Properties
Countries of Distribution
Cutting Resistance
Distribution Overview
Drying Defects
Ease of Drying
Environmental Profile
Family Name
Gluing
Grain
Heartwood Color
Kiln Drying Rate
Kiln Schedules
Light-Induced Color Change
Luster
Mortising
Moulding
Movement in Service
Nailing
Natural Durability
Natural Growth Defects
Numerical Data
Odor
Painting
Planing
Plantation species?
Polishing
Product Sources
References
Regions of Distribution
Resistance to Impregnation
Resistance to Splitting
Response to Hand Tools
Routing & Recessing
Sanding
Sapwood Color
Scientific Name
Screwing
Silica Content
Staining
Steam Bending
Strength Properties
Substitutes
Synonyms
Texture
Toxicity
Trade Name
Tree Identification
Tree Size
Turning
Varnishing
Veneering Qualities

Scientific Name
Tectona grandis

Trade Name
Teak

Family Name
Verbenaceae

Synonyms
Tectona theka


Wood Image 1

Wood Image 1

Wood Image 1

Wood Image 1

Wood Image 1

Wood Image 1

Wood Image 1

Common Names
Burma teak, Deleg, Djati, Djatos, Dodolan, Genuine teak, Gia thi, Giati, Jate, Jati, Jati sak, Jatih, Jatos, Java teak, Kaiti, Kulidawa, Kyoon-pen, Kyun, Mai sak, Maisak, Moulimein teak, Pahi, Rangoon teak, Rosawa, Sagon, Sagwan, Tadi, Teak, Teca, Teck, Tegina, Tekku, Thekku, Thukku, Tik, Tsik

Plantation species?
Yes

Regions of Distribution
Africa, Central America, Oceania and S.E. Asia

Countries of Distribution [VIEW MAP]
Benin, Burma, Cameroon, Congo, Fiji, Ghana, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Ivory Coast, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Vietnam, Zaire

Common Uses
Agricultural implements, Balusters, Bedroom suites, Boat building (general), Boat building, Boat building: decking, Boat building: framing, Boat building: planking, Boxes and crates, Bridge construction, Building construction, Building materials, Cabinetmaking, Canoes, Carvings, Chairs, Chemical containers, Chests, Clogs, Concealed parts (Furniture), Construction, Cooperages, Decks, Desks, Dining-room furniture, Domestic flooring, Dowell pins, Dowells, Drawer sides, Excelsior, Exterior trim & siding, Exterior uses, Fine furniture, Floor lamps, Flooring, Fuelwood, Furniture , Furniture components, Furniture squares or stock, Furniture, Hatracks, Heavy construction, Interior construction, Joinery (external): ground contact, Joinery, Kitchen cabinets, Ladders, Lifeboats, Light construction, Living-room suites, Lock gates, Mathematical instruments, Mine timbers, Moldings, Musical instruments, Novelties, Oars, Paneling , Paneling, Piling, Plywood corestock, Plywood, Plywood: veneer (marine), Poles, Posts, Pulp/Paper products, Railroad ties, Shingles, Shipbuilding, Sills, Sporting Goods, Structural work, Toys, Turnery, Vats, Vehicle parts, Veneer, Veneer: decorative, Wheel spokes, Wheels, Windows

Environmental Profile
Generally secure within its natural habitat
Data source is World Conservation Monitoring Center


Distribution Overview
Teak is indigenous to India, Burma, Thailand, Indochina and Java, but it has been extensively planted for timber or as an ornamental within its natural range and throughout the tropical regions of the world, including East and West Africa, the West Indies, from Cuba and Jamaica to Trinidad, and from Panama to Brazil. It is also grown in southern Florida. The species has also been cultivated experimentally or at low elevations in Puerto Rico.

Heartwood Color
Brown
Purple
Black
Green/grey
Red
Yellow to golden-yellow to orange
Brown
Dark brown
Greenish to greyish
Black
Darkens after prolonged exposure

The heartwood in its purest form, is a uniform dark golden-brown, without markings. But most other heartwood found in this species is dark golden yellow, which turns into rich brown with darker, chocolate-brown markings upon exposure. There is moderate to high color variation between boards

Sapwood Color
White
Yellow
White to yellow
Well defined
Paler than heartwood
Different than heartwood
Clearly differentiated from the heartwood


Grain
Figure
Straight
Growth rings (figure)
Distinct (figure)
Interlocked
Variable (figure)
Closed
Even
Mottled (figure)
Stripe (figure)
Wavy

Straight
Clear growth rings (figure)
Distinct figure
Variable figure
Interlocked
Striped figure
Occasionally wavy
Mottled figure
Figure shows rays


Texture
Medium
Fine
Coarse
Medium coarse to coarse
Fine
Medium
Uneven
Fine to medium

The wood is somewhat greasy and may contain white shiny deposits.

Luster
Medium
Dull


Natural Growth Defects
Whitish deposits in vessels
Yellowish deposits in vessels
Gum and mineral deposits


Natural Durability
Perishable
Durable
Moderately durable
Non-durable
Non-resistant to powder post beetles
Susceptible to insect attack
Very durable
Resistant to attack from termites (Isoptera)
Durable
Susceptible to attack from powder post (Lyctid & Bostrychid) beetles
Resistant to attack from marine borers
Moderately resistant to marine borer attack
Moderately durable
Resistant to wood staining fungal attack
Susceptible to attack from termites (Isoptera)
Resistant to attack from powder post (Lyctid & Bostrychid) beetles
Pinworms (ambrosia beetles) are commonly present
Moderately resistant to termite (Isoptera) attack


Odor
No specific taste
Has a leather-like odor when freshly milled


Silica Content
Slight
Moderate silica contact


Light-Induced Color Change
Darker


Corrosive Properties
Non-corrosive


Toxicity
Some toxic effects
Dermatitic effects
Unspecified toxicity


Kiln Schedules
Dry at a slow speed
Drying (speed) is fast
UK=H US=T10D4S/T8D3S Fr=7
UK=F US=T6D4/T3D3 Fr=6
Kiln Drying Rate (in days) is slow


Drying Defects
Splitting
Slight end splitting
No twisting or warping
No surface checking
No end splitting
No cupping, generally
Generally free from spring and bow
No collapse/honeycomb


Ease of Drying
Moderately Difficult to Difficult
Slowly
Easy


Kiln Drying Rate
Naturally dries slowly
Very slow (>28 days for boards < 32 mm, to >84 days for boards >= 63 mm)


Tree Identification
Bole/stem form is fluted
Bole/stem form is buttressed
Bole/stem form is straight


Tree Size
Bark width is 5-10 mm
Bole length is 0-10 m
Tree height is 10-20 m


Plantation trees are reported to grow to heights of 150 feet (45 m), and can be ready for harvesting after only 60 years. Teak logs are very heavy, and are rather difficult to transport. Standing trees are sometimes girdled and left to stand for two to eight years before they are harvested. This practice is reported to allow moisture in the tree to dissipate, and hence make the logs less heavy and easier to transport

Product Sources
Although it is higher in price than most other imports, Teak is available in veneer and lumber forms. Its consumption on the United States market is rather tiny compared to other domestic hardwoods. The wood is offered as an expensive option by many US shipbuilders, with most imports originating from Burma, which is the source of Teak with superior and the most desirable qualities. Good quality teak is difficult to acquire, and imports are usually in transit for about two months. Although US importers usually have some in stock, orders for the timber are slow to fill and can take up to a year.

Substitutes
Afrormosia (Pericopsis elata), Kindal (Terminalia paniculata), Iroko (Chlorophora excelsa , C. regia), Freijo (Cordia goeldiana), and for shipbuilding, Itauba (Mezilaurus navalium)

The following species are also similar in properties to Teak: ,Courbaril (Hymanaea courbaril), Andaman padauk (Pterocarpus dalbergioides), Yellow sanders (Buchenavia capitata), Indian white cedar (Dysoxylum malabaricum), but only for stiffness

Burma padauk (Pterocarpus macrocarpus) is superior in strength properties.

Comments
General finishing qualities are rated as good

General finishing qualities are rated as satisfactory

Resistance to Chemicals

The timber is resistant to water and numerous chemical reagents, including acids, and will not cause rust or corrosion when it comes in contact with metals.

Blunting Effect
Blunting effect on machining is slight
Blunting effect on machining is variable
Blunting effect on machining is fairly severe
Blunting effect on machining is severe


Boring
Easy
Fairly easy with ordinary tools
Cutting edges may dull rapidly


Carving
Carves well in dry condition


Cutting Resistance
Fairly Difficult to Very Difficult to saw
Cutting Resistance with dry wood is easy
Cutting Resistance with green wood is easy
Fairly difficult to saw
Cutting Resistance with green wood is moderate

Tungsten-Carbide cutting tools are recommended.

Gluing
Easy to glue
Moderate gluing properties

Freshly sanded or planed surfaces are fairly easy to glue.

Mortising
Finishes well


Moulding
Good moulding properties


Movement in Service
Stable
Small


Nailing
Easy to nail
Pre-boring recommended
Possible if prebored
Holds satisfactorily
Holds nails well


Planing
Planes well, to a good finish
Special attention required
Easy to plane

Cutting angles should be reduced to 20 degrees for best results.

Resistance to Impregnation
Resistant heartwood
Resistant sapwood
Heartwood is extremely resistant
Sapwood is moderately resistant
Heartwood is resistant

The sapwood also has low permeability, but the wood has a high natural resistance to decay which tends to offset its poor response to preservative treatment.

Resistance to Splitting
Good


Response to Hand Tools
Fairly Difficult to Difficult to Work
Easy to machine
Moderate working qualities
Variable qualities
Responds well to hand tools
Cutting edges should be kept very sharp to prevent the wood from crumbling


Routing & Recessing
Moderately easy
Cutting edges dull rapidly and severely because of interlocked grain and silica content


Sanding
Poor results
Good sanding properties

Sanding qualities are generally good, but abrasives tend to be clogged. Frequent sandpaper changes are usually necessary.

Screwing
Easy to screw
Screwing yields good results
Screwing yields good results
Nailing/screwing difficult without pre-boring


Turning
Easy to turn
Good results


Veneering Qualities
Easy to cut
No drying degrade. Dries flat without splitting
Suitable for slicing
Suitable for peeling
Good gluing qualities
Bolt preparation requires steaming


Steam Bending
Moderate


Painting
Fairly good painting properties


Polishing
Fair to Good Results
Very Good to Excellent Results
Good results
Satisfactory results


Staining
Stains well

Natural oils in the wood may interfere with adhesion and drying of some finishes. Removing surface resins with a solvent that is compatible with the finish to be used is suggested to reduce the wood's tendency to repel finish coats.

Varnishing
Good results
Satisfactory
Fairly good response to preservative treatment


Strength Properties
Density (dry weight) = 38-45 lbs/cu. ft.
Bending strength (MOR) = medium
Max. crushing strength = medium
Shearing strength (parallel to grain) = low
Shrinkage, Radial = very small
Shrinkage, Tangential = very small
Max. crushing strength = high
Hardness (side grain) = soft
Modulus of Elasticity (stiffness) = medium
Shearing strength (parallel to grain) = medium
Modulus of Elasticity (stiffness) = low
Bending strength (MOR) = high
Shrinkage, Tangential = small
Density (dry weight) = 31-37 lbs/cu. ft.
Bending strength (MOR) = low
Shrinkage, Radial = small
Density (dry weight) = 46-52 lbs/cu. ft.
Toughness-Hammer drop (Impact Strength) = low
Modulus of Elasticity (stiffness) = very low
Toughness-Hammer drop (Impact Strength) = very low
Shrinkage, Volumetric = moderate
Shrinkage, Radial = large
Shearing strength (parallel to grain) = high
Hardness (side grain) = medium
Density (dry weight) = 23-30 lbs/cu. ft.


Numerical Data
ItemGreenDryEnglish
Bending Strength1018214742psi
Crushing Strength8191065psi
Density39lbs/ft3
Hardness1038lbs
Impact Strength3325inches
Maximum Crushing Strength53507883psi
Shearing Strength1859psi
Static Bending56867304psi
Stiffness152117301000 psi
Toughness227inch-lbs
Work to Maximum Load911inch-lbs/in3
Specific Gravity0.520.57
Weight3837lbs/ft3
Radial Shrinkage2%
Tangential Shrinkage5%
Volumetric Shrinkage7%
ItemGreenDryMetric
Bending Strength7151036kg/cm2
Crushing Strength5774kg/cm2
Density624kg/m3
Hardness470kg
Impact Strength8363cm
Maximum Crushing Strength376554kg/cm2
Shearing Strength130kg/cm2
Static Bending399513kg/cm2
Stiffness1061211000 kg/cm2
Toughness261cm-kg
Work to Maximum Load0.630.77cm-kg/cm3
Specific Gravity0.520.57
Weight608592kg/m3
Radial Shrinkage2%
Tangential Shrinkage5%

References
Ashiabor, W.K.,1968,The Properties of Afzelia africana, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Cynometra,anata, Guibourtia ehie, Tectona grandis,Forest Products Research Laboratory, Ghana Tech. Note,No.6

Bakshi, B.K., Et al,1961,A Note on Decay Resistance of Teak, Shisham and Khair,Indian Forester 87(1) pp40-1

Banks, C.H., Schoeman, J.P., Otto, K.P.,1977,The Mechanical Properties of Timbers with particular reference to South,Africa,South African Forestry Research Institute Bulletin,(Ed.,Schoeman, J.P. 1973 & Otto K.P. 1976,No.48

Banks, C.H.,1970,The Durability of South African Wood and Wood Base Building Materials,South African Forestry Journal,No.75

Bolza, E., Keating, W.G.,1972,African Timbers - the Properties, Uses and Characteristics of 700 Species,C.S.I.R.O. Div. of Building Research

Bolza, E.,1975,Properties and Uses of 175 Timber Species from Papua New Guinea and West,Irian,C.S.I.R.O. Div. Building Research Report,no.34

Bolza, E.,1976,Timber and Health,Div. Building Res. C.S.I.R.O. Australia

Brooks, R.L., et al,1941,Durability tests on Untreated Timbers in Trinidad,Caribbean Forester,2(3,pp101-119

Brown, W.H.,1969,Properties and uses of Tropical hardwoods in the United Kingdom. Part 1,Nonstructural properties and uses.,Conference on Tropical hardwoods SC-5/TN-5, Syracuse University

Brown, W.H.,1978,Timbers of the World, No. 4 South East Asia,TRADA, Red Booklet Series

Bryce, J.M.,1966,Mechanical Properties of Tanzania Grown Teak (Tectona grandis L.,Tanzania Forestry Department, Utility Section Moshi, Technical Note No.34

Carrapiett, J.B.,1960,Notes on ornamental timbers of Burma,Burmese Forester,10(1,pp37-53

Chudnoff, M.,1984,Tropical Timbers of the World,U.S.A. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products,Laboratory, Madison.

Da Costa, E.W.B., Osborne, L.D.,1967,Comparative decay resistance of 26 New Guinea timber species in,accelerated laboratory tests,Comm. Forestry Review 46(1) pp63-74

Desch, H.E.,1947,The Teaks,Wood,12(11,pp324-5

Dickinson, F.E.,1949,Properties and Uses of Tropical Woods 1,Tropical Woods,13(95,pp1-140

Dupuy, B., Verhaegen, D.,1993,Plantation-grown teak (Tectona grandis) in the Ivory Coast [Le teck de,plantation (Tectona grandis) en Cote d'Ivoire],Bois et Forets des Tropiques No.235, 9-24

Findlay, W.P.K.,1975,Timber: Properties and Uses,Crosby Lockwood Staples London,224PP

Forest Products Research Laboratory, U.K.,1945,A Handbook of Empire Timbers,Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Forest Products Research

Gua, B.E.,1988,Observation on timber samples of eighteen research and plantation species,Forest Research Note, Solomon Islands Forestry Division Number 53 21/88

Harrar, E.S.,1942,Some Physical Properties of Modern Cabinet Woods 3. Directional and Volume,Shrinkage,Tropical Woods,9(71, pp26-32

Haslett, A.N.; Young, G.D. and Britton, R.A.J.,1991,Plantation grown Tropical Timbers. 2. Properties, Processing and Uses,Journal of Tropical Forest Science 3(3):229-237

HMSO. 1981. Handbook of Hardwoods, 2nd Edition. Revised by R. H. Farmer. Department of the Environment, Building Research Establishment, Princes Risborough Laboratory, Princes Risborough, Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire.

I. Soerianegara and R.H.M.J. Lemmens (Editors,1993,Plant Resources of South-East Asia 5,(PROSEA, 1,Timber trees: Major commercial timbers,Pudoc Scientific Publishers, Wageningen 1993

I.U.F.R.O.,1973,Veneer Species of the World,Assembled at F.P.L. Madison on behalf of I.U.F.R.O. Working Party on,Slicing and Veneer Cutting

Jackson, A. and D. Day. 1991. Good Wood Handbook - The Woodworker's Guide to Identifying, Selecting and Using the Right Wood. Betterway Publications, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Jain, J.C., Rao, P.S.,1966,Industrial Utilization of Sandal Sapwood,Indian Forestry 92(1) pp16-18

Jain, V.K.; Arora, K.L.; and Sharma, A.K.,1993,A Note on the Movement of some Indian Timbers,The Indian Forester Vol.119 No.11, pp.936-939

Kaiser, J. 1992. Wood of the Month - Teak: The Ironwood of China. Wood & Wood Products, February, 1992. Page 44.

Kaiser, J. 1989. Wood of the Month - Teak: Why Teak is a Popular Import and Mariner's Delight. Wood of the Month Annual, Volume 1, Supplement to Wood of the Month, Page 24.

Kartasujana, I., Martawijaya, A.,1973,Commercial Woods of Indonesia,Forest Products Research Institute, Department Pertanian, Bogor Indonesia,Report No.3

Keating, W.G., Bolza, E.,1982,Characteristics properties and uses of timbers. South East Asia, Northern,Australia and the Pacific,C.S.I.R.O. Div. Chemical Technology,Inkata Press,1

Keay, R.W.J. 1989. Trees of Nigeria. Revised Version of Nigerian Trees. Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Kennedy, J.D.,1936,Forest Flora of Southern Nigeria,Government Printer Lagos

Kline, M.1976. Tectona grandis - Teak. In A Guide to Useful Woods of the World, Flynn, J. H., Editor. King Philip Publishing Co., Portland, Maine. 1994, 337-338.

Kloot, N. H. and E. Bolza. 1961. Properties of Timbers Imported into Australia. Technological Paper No. 12. Division of Forest Products, Commonwealth Scientific & Industrial Research Organization, Melbourne, Australia.

Kloot, N.H., Bolza, E.,1961,Properties of Timbers Imported into Australia,C.S.I.R.O. Forest Products Division Technological Paper,No.12

Kraemer, J.H.,1951,Trees of the Western Pacific Region,West Lafayette, Indiana U.S.A.

Lamb, A.F.A., Wangaard, F.F.,1950,The Gluing Properties of certain Tropical American Woods,Yale Univ. School of Forestry Technical Report,4

Lee, Y.H., Lopez, D.T.,1968,The Machining Properties of some Malayan Timbers,Malayan Forester,3,pp194-210

Limaye, V.D. 1954. Grouping of Indian Timbers and their Properties, Uses and Suitability. Indian Forest Records, New Series. Timber Mechanics, Vol. 1, No. 2, Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun, India.

Limaye, V.D.,1957,Grouping of Indian Timbers and Their Properties, Uses and Suitability.,Indian Forest Records (N.S. Timber Mechanics Vol.1 No.2)

Lincoln, W.A. 1986. World Woods in Color. Linden Publishing Co. Inc., Fresno, California.

Little, E.L., Wadsworth, F.H.,1964,Common Trees of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands,U.S.A. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook,No.249

Longwood, F.R.,1962,Commercial Timbers of the Caribbean,U.S.A. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook,No.207

Marshall, R.C.,1934,Trees of Trinidad and Tobago,Government Printer Port of Spain Trinidad

Marshall, R.C.,1939,Silviculture of the trees of Trinidad and Tobago - British West Indies,O.U.P.,London

Martawijaya, A., Kadir, K., Kartasujana, I.,1986,Indonesian Wood Atlas. Vol.1.,Department of Forestry Agency for Forestry Research and Development.,Bogar-Indonesia

Murira, K.,1984,Natural Durability Tests of Tanzanian Timbers 1955 - 1982,Tanzania Forestry Research Institute, Timber Utilisation Research Centre,,Moshi.

Nazma,1981,A handbook of Kerala Timbers,Kerala Forest Research Institute Research Report, No.9

NWFA. 1994. Wood Species Used in Wood Flooring. Technical Publication No. A200. National Wood Flooring Association, Manchester, MO.

Patterson, D. 1988. Commercial Timbers of the World. Fifth Edition. Gower Technical Press, Aldershot, UK. ix + 339 pp.

Patterson, D.,1988,Commercial Timbers of the World, 5th Edition,Gower Technical Press

Ramesh, Rao K., Juneja, K.B.S.,1971,Field Identification of Fifty Important timbers of India,Dehra Dun India

Revue des Bois et de ses Applications,1956,La Page des Bois Tropicaux - Tiama,Revue des Bois et de ses Applications,11(2, p39

Sekhar, A.C.,1967,Some Indian Timbers Equivalent to Foreign Timbers,Van Vigyan 5(1&2,pp18-24

South African Lumber Millers Assoc.,1969,Notes on some Commercially Available Hardwoods,S.A.L.M.A. Timber Info. Centre Timber Technical Guide,No.1

Stadelman, R.C.,1966,Forests of South-East Asia,Wimmer Bros., Memphis Tennessee

Streets, R.J.,1962,Exotic Forest Trees in the British Commonwealth,Clarendon Press Oxford

Suvarnasuddhi, K.,1950,Some Commercial Timbers of Thailand - Their Properties and Uses,Royal Forest Department, Thailand

Tamolang, F.R. and Rocafort, J.E.,1987,Physico-Mechanical Properties and Possible Uses of Eleven Plantation-Grown,Timber Species in the Philippines,FPRDI-Journal 16:1-2,75-85

Tanzania Forest Department,1966,Flooring Timbers,Tanzania Forest Div. Util. Sec. Moshi - Timbers of Tanganyika

Tanzania Forest Division,1966,Kiln Drying Schedules for Tanzania Timbers Technical Note no.38,Tanzania Forest Div. Util. Sec. Moshi

Tewari, M.C., Jain, J.C.,1980,Utilization of Secondary Species,Journal of the National Building Organization 25(2) pp1-6

Thomas, A.V.,1964,Timbers Used in the Boat Building Industry A Survey,Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Forest Products Research,Laboratory

Timber Development Association,1941,Timber Leaflet No. 43 TEAK,TRADA, LONDON

U.S.D.A. Forest Service,1974,Wood Handbook,U.S.A. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service Handbook,72

Wangaard, F.F., Muschler, A.F.,1952,Properties and Uses of Tropical Woods 3,Tropical Woods,14(98, pp1-190

WCMC. 1992. Conservation Status Listing - Trees and Timbers of the World, World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Plants Programme, 219 Huntingdon Road, Cambridge, CB3 ODL, United Kingdom.

Wood, A.D.,1963,Plywoods of the World: Their Development, Manufacture and,Application,Johnston & Bacon Ltd. Edinburgh & London

Yoji Kikata (ed.,1991,The promotion of Lesser-known Species and Plantation-grown species,Proceedings of the International Forest Products Workshop, 14 to 15,October, 1991, Nagoya University, Japan








Search the web for anything relating to wood and forest products.


























Search the web for anything relating to wood and forest products.