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Blunting Effect
Boring
Carving
Comments
Common Names
Common Uses
Countries of Distribution
Cutting Resistance
Distribution Overview
Drying Defects
Ease of Drying
Environmental Profile
Gluing
Grain
Heartwood Color
Kiln Drying Rate
Kiln Schedules
Mortising
Moulding
Movement in Service
Nailing
Natural Durability
Numerical Data
Odor
Planing
Polishing
References
Regions of Distribution
Resistance to Impregnation
Response to Hand Tools
Routing & Recessing
Sapwood Color
Scientific Name
Screwing
Staining
Steam Bending
Strength Properties
Texture
Trade Name
Tree Size
Turning

Scientific Name
Ulmus procera

Trade Name
English elm

Family Name

Wood Image 1

Wood Image 1

Wood Image 1

Common Names
Elm, English elm, Nave elm, Red elm, Vanlig alm

Regions of Distribution
Western Europe

Countries of Distribution [VIEW MAP]
United Kingdom

Common Uses
Bedroom suites, Bent Parts, Boat building, Cabinetmaking, Canoes, Caskets, Chairs, Decorative veneer, Dining-room furniture, Docks, Dockwork, Domestic flooring, Drawer sides, Figured veneer, Fine furniture, Flooring, Furniture , Harbor work, Kitchen cabinets, Lifeboats, Living-room suites, Marine construction, Office furniture, Parquet flooring, Radio - stereo - TV cabinets, Shipbuilding, Sub-flooring, Turnery, Utility furniture, Veneer, Wharf construction

Environmental Profile
Status has not been officially assessed

Difficult to locate

Distribution Overview
English elm is native to England and western Europe. It is, however, widely cultivated, escaping in the northeastern and Pacific states of the United States. It grows in thickets, along roadsides and forest borders, and is often found in moist soils.

Heartwood Color
Brown
Yellow
Red
Purple
Orange
Golden brown with a reddish cast

Dull in color, and free of knotS/The heartwood is described as dull reddish-brown in color, and is often free of knots

Sapwood Color
White
Yellow
Brown
Red
Clearly differentiated from the heartwood


Grain
Figure
Crossed
Irregular

Irregular
Crossed

Attractive figure

Texture
Fine
Coarse


Natural Durability
Durable
Perishable
Non-durable
Moderately durable
Non-resistant to termites
Susceptible to insect attack
Very little natural resistance
Susceptible to attack by fungi and termites


Odor
No specific smell or taste


Kiln Schedules
Schedule A: United Kingdom


Drying Defects
Expect splits
Distortion (twist/warp) is likely
Collapse
Checking


Ease of Drying
Slowly
Highly prone to degrade
Dries at a fairly rapid rate


Kiln Drying Rate
Naturally dries slowly


Tree Size
Tree height is 20-30 m
Sapwood width is 10-15 cm
Sapwood width is 5-10 cm
Sapwood width is 0-5 cm
Tree height is 30-40 m


Comments
Often found in hedgerows. Center is likely unsound

Blunting Effect
High to severe
Medium effect


Boring
Fairly easy to very easy
Difficult


Carving
Gluing is often difficult


Cutting Resistance
Fairly Difficult to Very Difficult to saw
Tends to bind on saws
Difficult to saw


Gluing
Good properties


Mortising
Difficult to mortise


Moulding
Requires very sharp cutting edges

Wood tends to pick-up

Movement in Service
Moderate dimensional stability after seasoning
Medium


Nailing
Satisfactory nailing properties
Resists splitting


Planing
Very Good to Excellent Results
Fair to Good Results
Woolly
Irregular grain interferes
Difficult to plane


Resistance to Impregnation
Sapwood is permeable
Heartwood is moderately resistant


Response to Hand Tools
Easy to Work
Fairly Difficult to Difficult to Work
Cutting edges should be kept sharp to prevent torn rays


Routing & Recessing
Very sharp cutting edges are required to produce a smooth surface


Screwing
Reported to screw without splitting


Turning
Requires very sharp cutting edges
Difficult to turn


Steam Bending
Poor


Polishing
Fair to Good Results
High finish


Staining
Stains well


Strength Properties
Hardness = medium
Crushing strength = low

Density is high

Numerical Data
ItemGreenDryEnglish
Bending Strength53028989psi
Density31lbs/ft3
Hardness804lbs
Impact Strength2523inches
Maximum Crushing Strength22644545psi
Shearing Strength1715psi
Stiffness77910491000 psi
Work to Maximum Load910inch-lbs/in3
Specific Gravity0.54
Weight3732lbs/ft3
Radial Shrinkage4%
Tangential Shrinkage6%
ItemGreenDryMetric
Bending Strength372632kg/cm2
Density496kg/m3
Hardness364kg
Impact Strength6358cm
Maximum Crushing Strength159319kg/cm2
Shearing Strength120kg/cm2
Stiffness54731000 kg/cm2
Work to Maximum Load0.630.70cm-kg/cm3
Specific Gravity0.54
Weight592512kg/m3
Radial Shrinkage4%

References
HMSO. 1985. Broadleaves. Forestry Commission Booklet No. 20. Text by H.E. Edlin. Revised by A.F. Mitchell. Forestry Commission, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London.

HMSO, 1981. Handbook of Hardwoods, 2nd Edition. Revised by R.H. Farmer. Department of the Environment, Building Research Establishment, Princes Risborough Laboratory, Princes Risborough, Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire.

Laidlaw, W.B.R. 1960. Guide to British Hardwoods. Published by Leonard Hill [Books] Limited, 9 Eden Street, N.W.1, London.

Lavers, G.M. 1966. The Strength Properties of Timbers. Forest Products Research Bulletin, No. 50. Ministry of Technology, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London.

Lincoln, W.A. World Woods in Color. Linden Publishing Co. Inc, Fresno, California.

Little, E.L. 1980. The Audobon Society Field Guide to North American Trees - Western Region. Published by Arthur A. Knopf, New York.

Patterson, D. 1988. Commercial Timbers of the World. Fifth Edition. Gower Technical Press, Aldershot, UK. ix + 339 pp.








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