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Blunting Effect
Boring
Comments
Common Names
Common Uses
Countries of Distribution
Cutting Resistance
Distribution Overview
Drying Defects
Ease of Drying
Environmental Profile
Family Name
Gluing
Grain
Heartwood Color
Kiln Drying Rate
Kiln Schedules
Light-Induced Color Change
Movement in Service
Nailing
Natural Durability
Natural Growth Defects
Numerical Data
Odor
Planing
Polishing
Product Sources
References
Regions of Distribution
Resistance to Impregnation
Resistance to Splitting
Response to Hand Tools
Sanding
Sapwood Color
Scientific Name
Screwing
Staining
Steam Bending
Strength Properties
Substitutes
Texture
Toxicity
Trade Name
Tree Identification
Tree Size
Turning
Varnishing
Veneering Qualities

Scientific Name
Eucalyptus marginata

Trade Name
Jarrah

Family Name
Myrtaceae

Wood Image 1

Common Names
Jarrah

Regions of Distribution
Oceania and S.E. Asia

Countries of Distribution [VIEW MAP]
Australia

Common Uses
Agricultural implements, Barge fenders, Beams, Boat building (general), Bridge beams, Bridge construction, Bridge joists, Building materials, Cabinetmaking, Carvings, Crossties, Decks, Decorative veneer, Docks, Dockwork, Domestic flooring, Door, Exterior trim & siding, Exterior uses, Factory flooring, Figured veneer, Flooring, Flooring: commercial heavy traffic, Flooring: industrial heavy traffic, Furniture, Handles, Harbor work, Heavy construction, Joinery, Joists, Light construction, Marine construction, Mine timbers, Musical instruments: piano, Naval architecture, Paneling, Parquet flooring, Pile-driver cushions, Piling, Planks, Plywood, Poles, Raft floats, Rafters, Rafts, Railroad ties, Roofing, Shafts/Handles, Shingles, Shipbuilding, Sporting Goods, Structural work, Sub-flooring, Tool handles, Toys, Turnery, Vats, Veneer, Wharf construction

Environmental Profile
Status has not been officially assessed


Distribution Overview
Found in coastal belt in the dry savannah in Southwestern Australia. Usually grows in gravely soil.

Heartwood Color
Brown
Red
Yellow
Pink
Orange
Reddish brown
Red
Pale red to pink
Dark brown


Sapwood Color
Red
Brown
Yellow
Paler than heartwood

Uniform pink to dark red, turning to rich brown with age

Grain
Interlocked
Wavy
Figure
Straight
Even
Closed
Mottle
Stripe (figure)
Weak (figure)
Growth rings (figure)

Interlocked
Wavy
Straight
With distinct light and dark bands
Weak figure
Striped figure
Mottled or streaked figure sometimes

A fungus, Fistulina hepatica , can cause dark brown radial flecks on end-grain and boat-shaped flecks on flat sawn surfaces. The markings enhance the appearance of the timber.

Texture
Medium
Fine
Coarse
Medium coarse
Medium
Even textured
Coarse


Natural Growth Defects
Gum/resin streaks
Gum/resin streaks
Gum pockets or veins are a common defect
Gum and mineral deposits


Natural Durability
Susceptible to insect attack
Moderately durable
Resistant to powder post beetles
Durable
Non-resistant to termites
Very durable
Non-durable
Non-resistant to marine borers
Perishable
Very durable
Resistant to attack from termites (Isoptera)
Durable
Resistant to attack from powder post (Lyctid & Bostrychid) beetles
Resistant to attack from marine borers
Wood is fire-resistant
Susceptible to attack from termites (Isoptera)
Susceptible to attack from powder post (Lyctid & Bostrychid) beetles
Sapwood is resistant to powder post beetle attack
Pinworms (ambrosia beetles) may be present in the felled log
Heartwood is moderately resistant to attack by termites and marine borers


Odor
No specific smell or taste


Light-Induced Color Change
Darker


Toxicity
Respiratory effects


Kiln Schedules
UK=C US=T3C2/T3C1 Fr=3
Uk = C
T3-C2(4/4) US
T3-C1-(8/4) US
Kiln Drying Rate (in days) is rather slow

Partial air drying with low temperatures and high humidity prior to kiln is recommended

Drying Defects
Checking
Internal Honeycombing Possible
Collapse
Distortion
Moderate twist/warp
Slight surface checking
Moderate surface checking
Expect slight collapse and honeycombing
Slight twist/warp
Moderate collapse and honeycombing


Ease of Drying
Moderately Difficult to Difficult
Slowly
Radial and tangential shrinkage from 4-7%
Partial air-seasoning before kiln-drying is recommended
Dries well under good controlled conditions

Green shrinkage = 12%

Kiln Drying Rate
Naturally dries slowly
Slow (18-28 days for boards < 32 mm, to 52-84 days for boards >= 63 mm)


Tree Identification
Bole/stem form is straight


Tree Size
Tree height is 40-50 m
Trunk diameter is 100-150 cm
Tree height is 50-60 m
Tree height is 60-70 m
Tree height is 30-40 m
Trunk diameter is 150-200 cm
Trunk diameter is 200-250 cm


Product Sources
The most widely harvested of the Eucalyptus timbers, Jarrah is available on the world market at moderate prices, but it is plenttiful within its native Australia at a low price.

Substitutes
Karri (Eucalyptus diversicolor)

Comments
Dense

General finishing qualities are rated as good

Hard and strong

Heavy

High resistance to wear

Blunting Effect
Moderate
High to severe
Blunting effect on machining is moderate


Boring
Fairly easy to very easy
Use very sharp cutting edges to prevent grain from tearing
Irregular grain causing difficulty
Dense


Cutting Resistance
Easy to saw
Cutting Resistance with green wood is moderate
Material with interlocked grain can be difficult.


Gluing
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Fairly Difficult to Very Difficult
Fair to Good Results
Moderate gluing properties
Easy to glue
Satisfactory gluing properties


Movement in Service
Medium


Nailing
Pre-Boring Recommended
Fairly Difficult to Very Difficult
Pre-boring recommended
Holds nails well
Difficult to nail


Planing
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Very Good to Excellent Results
Fair to Good Results
Very sharp cutting edges are required to produce a smooth surface
Torn grain is common machining defect
Planes to a satisfactory finish
Ease of planing is moderate
A reduced cutting edge of 15 degrees is required


Resistance to Impregnation
Resistant heartwood
Resistant sapwood
Heartwood is extremely resistant
Sapwood is permeable
Heartwood resistance to preservative treatment is very high


Resistance to Splitting
Poor


Response to Hand Tools
Easy to Work
Fairly Difficult to Difficult to Work
Difficult to machine
Moderate working qualities


Sanding
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Contains alkaloids giving it good acid resistance

Sawdust may stain fabric wall finishes

Screwing
Pre-boring recommended
Screwing yields good results
Pre-Boring is recommended in screwing


Turning
Attractive grain when turned


Veneering Qualities
Easy to cut
Suitable for slicing
Suitable for peeling
No drying degrade. Dries flat without splitting
Moderately easy to veneer

Peel and slice readily into high quality veneer

Steam Bending
Fair to Good Results
Poor to Very Poor Results
Moderate

Straight-Grained material has satisfactory steam bending characteristics and can be bent to a moderate radius of curvature

Polishing
Fair to Good Results
Very Good to Excellent Results
Good results


Staining
Fair to Good Results
Finish is generally good
Finish is generally good

Seldom stained due to its natural color; red color may bleed into some finishes

Varnishing
Good results
Finished with varnish or wax

Rarely stained

Strength Properties
Bending strength (MOR) = medium
Max. crushing strength = high
Density (dry weight) = 46-52 lbs/cu. ft.
Hardness (side grain) = medium
Density (dry weight) = 53-60
Shrinkage, Radial = fairly large
Shrinkage, Tangential = large
Density (dry weight) = 61<
Density (dry weight) = 38-45 lbs/cu. ft.
Shrinkage, Tangential = moderate
Toughness (total work) = very low
Toughness (total work) = low
Shrinkage, Tangential = fairly large
Shrinkage, Radial = moderate


Numerical Data
ItemGreenDryEnglish
Bending Strength969515531psi
Crushing Strength12011715psi
Density52lbs/ft3
Hardness1803lbs
Maximum Crushing Strength56298930psi
Shearing Strength2137psi
Static Bending63119996psi
Stiffness152918481000 psi
Toughness125inch-lbs
Specific Gravity0.630.72
Weight4939lbs/ft3
Radial Shrinkage6%
Tangential Shrinkage9%
ItemGreenDryMetric
Bending Strength6811091kg/cm2
Crushing Strength84120kg/cm2
Density833kg/m3
Hardness817kg
Maximum Crushing Strength395627kg/cm2
Shearing Strength150kg/cm2
Static Bending443702kg/cm2
Stiffness1071291000 kg/cm2
Toughness144cm-kg
Specific Gravity0.630.72
Weight785624kg/m3
Radial Shrinkage6%

References
Audas, J.W.,Native Trees of Australia,Whitcombe & Tombs PTY. Ltd

Banks, C.H. and J.P. Schoeman. 1963. Railway Sleeper and Crossing Timbers. Bulletin No. 41, Republic of South Africa. The Government Printer, Pretoria, South Africa.

Banks, C.H., Schoeman, J.P., Otto, K.P.,1977,The Mechanical Properties of Timbers with particular reference to South,Africa,South African Forestry Research Institute Bulletin,(Ed.,Schoeman, J.P. 1973 & Otto K.P. 1976,No.48

Banks, C.H.,1954,The Mechanical Properties of Timbers with Particular Reference to those,grown in the Union of South Africa,Journal of the South African Forestry Association,No. 24 pp.44-65,[South,African Forestry Journal]

Banks, C.H.,1970,The Durability of South African Wood and Wood Base Building Materials,South African Forestry Journal,No.75

Boas, I.H.,1947,The Commercial Timbers of Australia - Their Properties and Uses,Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Melbourne

Bolza, E., Keating, W.G.,1972,African Timbers - the Properties, Uses and Characteristics of 700 Species,C.S.I.R.O. Div. of Building Research

Bolza, E., Kloot, N. H. 1963. The Mechanical Properties of 174 Australian Timbers. Technological Paper No. 25. Division of Forest Products, Center for Scientific and Industrial Organization (CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia

Bolza, E., Kloot, N.H.,1963,The Mechanical Properties of 174 Australian Timbers,C.S.I.R.O. Division of Forest Products Technological Paper,No.25

Bolza, E.,1976,Timber and Health,Div. Building Res. C.S.I.R.O. Australia

Brown, W.H.,1978,Timbers of the World, No. 8 Australasia,TRADA, Red Booklet Series

Chudnoff, M.,1984,Tropical Timbers of the World,U.S.A. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products,Laboratory, Madison.

Farmer, R.H.,1972,Handbook of Hardwoods,HMSO

Forestry Commission of New South Wales,1987,Timbers used in New South Wales for Domestic Buildings,Forestry Commission of New South Wales, Technical Publication No.6

Forests Products Research Laboratory, U.K.,1956,A Handbook of Hardwoods,Forest Products Research Laboratory, Princes Risborough, Department of,Science and Industrial Research, Building Research Establishment

Gay, F.J., Et al,1955,Standard laboratory colonies of termites for evaluating the resistance of,timber, timber preservatives and other materials to termite attack.,C.S.I.R.O., Australia Bulletin,No.277

Hillis, W.E. and A.G. Brown, Editors. 1984. Eucalyptus for Wood Production. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Academic Press, Australia.

HMSO. 1972. Handbook of Hardwoods, 2nd Edition. Revised by R.H. Farmer. Department of the Environment, Building Research Establishment, Princes Risborough Laboratory, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London.

Howard, A.L.,1948,A Manual of Timbers of the World.,Macmillan & Co. Ltd. London 3rd ed.

I.U.F.R.O.,1973,Veneer Species of the World,Assembled at F.P.L. Madison on behalf of I.U.F.R.O. Working Party on,Slicing and Veneer Cutting

Jackson, A. and D. Day. 1991. Good Wood Handbook - The Woodworker's Guide to Identifying, Selecting and Using the Right Wood. Betterway Publications, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Kaiser, J. 1994. Eucalyptus - The Gum from Down Under. Wood & Wood Products. January 1994, Page 48.

Kline, M. 1985. Eucalyptus marginata - Jarrah. In A Guide to Useful Woods of the World, Flynn Jr., J.H., Editor. King Philip Publishing Co., Portland, Maine. Page 155.

Kukachka, B.F.,1970,Properties of Imported Tropical Woods,Forest Research Paper FPL 125

Lavers, G. M. 1966. The Strength Properties of Timbers. Forest Products Research Bulletin, No. 50. Ministry of Technology, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London.

Lavers, G.M.,1983,The Strength Properties of Timber (3rd ed. revised Moore G.L.,Forest Products Research Laboratory, Princes Risborough, Building Research,Establishment Report (formerly Bulletin No.50)

Lincoln, W.A. 1986. World Woods in Color. Linden Publishing Co. Inc., Fresno, California.

NWFA. 1994. Wood Species Used in Wood Flooring. Technical Publication No. A200. National Wood Flooring Association, Manchester, MO.

Patterson, D.,1988,Commercial Timbers of the World, 5th Edition,Gower Technical Press

Rendle, B.J.,1969,World Timbers (3 Vols.,Ernest Benn Ltd. London

Scott, M.H.,1935,Weights of South African Growth Timbers,South African Department of Agriculture and Forestry Bulletin,No.145,Forest Products Institute, Forestry Series No.1

Stewart, A.M., Kloot, N.H.,1957,Mechanical Properties of Timbers,C.S.I.R.O., Australia Bulletin,No.279

T.R.A.D.A.,1982,Timbers for river and sea constructions,TRADA Wood Information Section 0, Sheet 6

Takahashi, A.,1978,Compilation of Data on the Mechanical Properties of Foreign Woods (Part,III) Africa,Shimane University, Japan, Research Report on Foreign Wood No. 7

The Australian Timber Journal & Building Products, Merchandiser,1969,Timber Durability and Preservation,Supplement to Australian Timber Journal 35(4) Tech. Timb. Guide No.8

U.S.D.A. Forest Service,1974,Wood Handbook,U.S.A. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service Handbook,72

Wallis, N.K. 1956. Australian Timber Handbook. Sponsored by The Timber Development Association of Australia. Angus & Robertson, Ltd., 89 Castlereagh Street, Sydney, Australia.








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