Search for  
 
 

top

Clickingany heading in the main data area (at right) will scroll the page backto this top position.

Use the following links tojump to the associated section in the main data.

Blunting Effect
Boring
Carving
Comments
Common Names
Common Uses
Countries of Distribution
Cutting Resistance
Distribution Overview
Drying Defects
Ease of Drying
Environmental Profile
Family Name
Gluing
Grain
Heartwood Color
Kiln Schedules
Luster
Mortising
Moulding
Movement in Service
Nailing
Natural Durability
Numerical Data
Odor
Planing
Polishing
Product Sources
References
Regions of Distribution
Resistance to Impregnation
Resistance to Splitting
Response to Hand Tools
Routing & Recessing
Sanding
Sapwood Color
Scientific Name
Screwing
Staining
Steam Bending
Strength Properties
Substitutes
Texture
Toxicity
Trade Name
Tree Identification
Tree Size
Turning
Veneering Qualities

Scientific Name
Fagus sylvatica

Trade Name
European beech

Family Name
Fagaceae

Wood Image 1

Wood Image 1

Wood Image 1

Wood Image 1

Wood Image 1

Common Names
Carpathian beech, Common beech, Danish beech, English beech, European beech, Fayard, French beech, Japanese beech, Rod bok, Romanian beech, Rumanian beech, Slavonian beech, Varlig bok, Yugoslavian beech

Regions of Distribution
Eastern Europe, Oceania and S.E. Asia, Western Europe

Countries of Distribution [VIEW MAP]
Austria, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Norway, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, United Kingdom, Yugoslavia

Common Uses
Boat building (general), Boat building: framing, Bobbins, Brush backs & handles, Cabinetmaking, Chairs, Cooperages, Core Stock, Decorative veneer, Desks, Domestic flooring, Flooring, Flooring: commercial heavy traffic, Flooring: industrial heavy traffic, Food containers, Furniture , Furniture, Handles: general, Handles: woodworking tools, Heavy construction, Joinery, Light construction, Marine construction, Mine timbers, Musical instruments , Musical instruments, Musical instruments: piano, Paneling, Piling, Plywood, Railroad ties, Shade rollers, Sporting Goods, Textile equipment, Tool handles, Toys, Turnery, Vehicle parts, Veneer, Workbenches

Environmental Profile
Generally secure within its natural habitat


Distribution Overview
Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden. Does well on chalky limestone hills, but also on most fertile light soils with good drainage.

Heartwood Color
Brown
White
Pink
White to cream
Reddish brown
Brown
Pale brown
Yellow to golden-yellow to orange
Pale red to pink


Sapwood Color
Color not distinct from heartwood


Grain
Straight
Figure
Rays (figure)
Even
Other (figure)
Growth rings (figure)
Weak (figure)

Generally straight, but not always
Rays figure
Weak figure
Other figure
Clear growth rings (figure)

Broad rays are conspicous on longitudinal surfaces. Flat sawn lumber is rather plain in appearance, but quartersawn material shows a distinct attractive silver grain.

Texture
Medium
Fine
Medium
Even textured


Luster
High
Slightly lustrous
Lustrous


Natural Durability
Durable
Perishable
Resistant to attack from powder post (Lyctid & Bostrychid) beetles
Non durable
Moderately durable
Susceptible to attack from termites (Isoptera)
Susceptible to attack from powder post (Lyctid & Bostrychid) beetles
Sapwood is vulnerable to attack by the longhorn beetle
Old timber is readily attacked by death watch beetle
Heartwood is susceptible to wood staining fungal attack


Odor
Has an odor
No specific smell or taste


Toxicity
Respiratory effects
Dermatitic effects


Kiln Schedules
Dry at a moderate speed
Drying (speed) is fast
UK=E US=T6D2/T3D1 Fr=5
UK=D US=T3D2/T3C1
UK=C US=T3C2/T3C1 Fr=3


Drying Defects
Collapse
Distortion
Moderate twist/warp
Moderate end spitting
Moderate surface checking
Slight surface checking


Ease of Drying
Thick Stock Requires Care
Requires special attention
Fairly Easy
Little degrade
Medium to High Shrinkage
Moderate
Radial and tangential shrinkage from 4-7%
Easy


Tree Identification
Bole/stem form is straight


Tree Size
Tree height is 30-40 m
Trunk diameter is 100-150 cm


Beech trees are sometimes called Queen of the Woods because of their large size and stately appearance. On deep limey soils, the trees are reported to commonly reach 100 feet (30 m), sometimes reaching 150 feet (45 m). Trunk diameters are often 4 feet (1.2 m), but may be greater. Depending upon growth conditions, boles are clear to 30 to 50 feet (9 to 15 m).

Product Sources
The timber is consumed more than any other hardwood in the United Kingdom. It is considered to be among the best known and most useful commercial timbers in the world, and is always in demand. European beech is available in long lengths, wide boards, and in the form of veneers, and is in the same price class as the lower cost hardwoods.

Substitutes
European birch (Betula spp.) and African mahogany (Khaya anthotheca) have similar strength properties.

Comments
General finishing qualities are rated as good

Varies considerably

Blunting Effect
Blunting effect on machining is moderate
Blunting effect is variable
Slight

Dulling effect on cutting edges is variable, but is usually moderate.

Boring
Fairly easy to very easy


Harring is common during boring operations.

Carving
Fairly Easy to Very Easy


Cutting Resistance
Easy to saw
Cutting Resistance with dry wood is moderate
Cutting Resistance with dry wood is difficult

Saws may bind during conversion of green material. Burning and tooth vibration may also occur when cross-cutting tougher material. Narrow bandsawing is satisfactory

Gluing
Fair to Good Results
Easy to glue
Very good properties


Mortising
Fairly Easy to Very Easy


Moulding
Fairly Easy to Very Easy


Movement in Service
Fair to Good Stability - Medium Movement
Large
Fair to poor dimensional stability after seasoning

Requires careful and proper seasoning before application

Nailing
Fair to Good Results
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Pre-boring recommended
Holds nails well

The timber is fairly hard and moderately heavy

Planing
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Satisfactory planing properties
A reduced angle to 30 degrees is recommended


Resistance to Impregnation
Resistant sapwood
Resistant heartwood
Heartwood is permeable
Heartwood is permeable
Sapwood is permeable
Sapwood is permeable
Moderately resistant
Heartwood is moderately resistant

The timber is reported to absorb preservatives better than many hardwoods.

Resistance to Splitting
Excellent


Response to Hand Tools
Responds Readily
Easy to Work
Easy to machine
Moderate working qualities
Variable qualities

Seasoned wood difficult to work with hand tools

Routing & Recessing
Fairly Easy to Very Easy


Sanding
Fair to Good Results


Screwing
Screwing yields good results
Possible if prebored


Turning
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Very Good to Excellent Results
Good results
Easy to turn


Veneering Qualities
Veneers easily
Easy to cut
Easy to cut
There is slight to moderate drying degrade and the potential for buckles and splits
There is slight to moderate drying degrade and the potential for buckles and splits

Exhibit an attractive flecked figure on quartered surfaces, and broad rays on longitudinal surfaces.

Steam Bending
Unsuitable
Poor to Very Poor Results
Fairly Difficult to Very Difficult
Very good
Good

It is possible to bend into very small radii, making it quite useful in furniture industry

Polishing
Very Good to Excellent Results
Good results
Satisfactory results


Staining
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Finish is generally satisfactory
Finish is generally good
Stains very well

Can be dyed readily for purposes where colored wood is required

Strength Properties
46-52 lbs/cu. ft.
Mor/Bending strength = medium
Density (dry weight) = 38-45 lbs/cu. ft.
Max. crushing strength = medium
Shearing strength (parallel to grain) = medium
Medium
Medium
Large
Modulus of Elasticity (stiffness) = low
Large
Hardness (side grain) = soft
Very high
Small
Shrinkage, Tangential = moderate
Shrinkage, Radial = very small
Low
High
High
Fairly large
53-60 lbs/cu. ft.
31-37 lbs/cu. ft.

The bending strength qualities of this species in the air-dry condition is very high, far superior to those of Mahogany. Compression strength parallel to grain in the air-dry condition is high. Teak, White oak, and Hard maple have high crushing strength. It is fairly hard, resisting wear, denting, and marring fairly well. It is a heavy wood. The wood has high density.

Numerical Data
ItemGreenDryEnglish
Bending Strength941315850psi
Density45lbs/ft3
Hardness1453lbs
Impact Strength3544inches
Maximum Crushing Strength42707593psi
Shearing Strength2090psi
Stiffness158619321000 psi
Work to Maximum Load1317inch-lbs/in3
Specific Gravity0.65
Weight4342lbs/ft3
Radial Shrinkage4%
Tangential Shrinkage9%
ItemGreenDryMetric
Bending Strength6611114kg/cm2
Density721kg/m3
Hardness659kg
Impact Strength88111cm
Maximum Crushing Strength300533kg/cm2
Shearing Strength146kg/cm2
Stiffness1111351000 kg/cm2
Work to Maximum Load0.911.19cm-kg/cm3
Specific Gravity0.65
Weight689673kg/m3
Radial Shrinkage4%

References
Armstrong, F.H.,1960,The Strength Properties of Timber,Forest Products Research Laboratory, London Bulletin,No.45

Banks, C.H.,1954,The Mechanical Properties of Timbers with Particular Reference to those,grown in the Union of South Africa,Journal of the South African Forestry Association,No. 24 pp.44-65,[South,African Forestry Journal]

Bolza, E.,1976,Timber and Health,Div. Building Res. C.S.I.R.O. Australia

Boone, R.S., C.J. Kozlik, P.J. Bois and E.M. Wengert. 1988. Dry Kiln Schedules for Commercial Woods: Temperate and Tropical. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, General Technical Report FPL-GTR-57, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin.

British Woodworking Federation. 1995. Which Wood . Published by the British Woodworking Federation, Broadway House, Tothill Street, London.

Brown, W.H.,1978,Timbers of the World No.1 Africa,TRADA, Red Booklet Series

Brown, W.H.,1978,Timbers of the World, No. 6 Europe,TRADA, Red Booklet Series

Clifford, N.,1953,Commercial Hardwoods - Their Characteristics Identification and,Utilization,Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons Ltd. London

Clifford, N.,1957,Timber Identification for the Builder and Architect,Leonard Hill (Books) LTD. London

Farmer, R.H.,1972,Handbook of Hardwoods,HMSO

Findlay, W.P.K.,1938,The Natural Resistance to Decay of some Empire Timbers,Empire Forestry Journal,17,pp249 - 259

Findlay, W.P.K.,1975,Timber: Properties and Uses,Crosby Lockwood Staples London,224PP

Forest Products Research Laboratory, U.K.,1937,A Handbook of Home-Grown Timbers,HMSO

Forest Products Research Laboratory, U.K.,1954,Hardwoods for Industrial Flooring,Forest Products Research Laboratory, Princes Risborough, Leaflet, No.48

Forest Products Research Laboratory, U.K.,1967,The Steam Bending Properties of various timbers,Forest Products Research Laboratory, Princes Risborough, Leaflet,No.45

Forest Products Research Laboratory, U.K.,1969,The Movement of Timbers,Forest Products Research Laboratory, Princes Risborough Technical Note,No.38

Forests Products Research Laboratory, U.K.,1956,A Handbook of Hardwoods,Forest Products Research Laboratory, Princes Risborough, Department of,Science and Industrial Research, Building Research Establishment

HMSO. 1981. Handbook of Hardwoods, 2nd Edition. Revised by R.H. Farmer. Department of the Environment, Building Research Establishment, Princes Risborough Laboratory, Princes Risborough, Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire.

HMSO. 1985. Broadleaves. Forestry Commission Booklet No. 20. Text by H.E. Edlin. Revised by A.F. Mitchell. Forestry Commission, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London.

Howard, A.L.,1948,A Manual of Timbers of the World.,Macmillan & Co. Ltd. London 3rd ed.

I.U.F.R.O.,1973,Veneer Species of the World,Assembled at F.P.L. Madison on behalf of I.U.F.R.O. Working Party on,Slicing and Veneer Cutting

Jackson, A. and D. Day. 1992. Good Wood Handbook - The Wood worker's Guide to Identifying, Selecting and Using the Right Wood. HarperCollins Publishers, London

Kloot, N.H., Bolza, E.,1961,Properties of Timbers Imported into Australia,C.S.I.R.O. Forest Products Division Technological Paper,No.12

Kribbs, D.A. 1959. Commercial Foreign Woods on the American Market. Buckhout Lab., Dept. of Botany, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania.

Kribs, D.A.,1950,Commercial and Foreign Woods on the American Market (a manual to their,structure, identification, uses and distribution,U.S.A. Penn. State College, Tropical Woods Laboratory

Laidlaw, W.B.R. 1960. Guide to British Hardwoods. Published by Leonard Hill [Books] Limited, 9 Eden Street, N.W.1, London.

Lavers, G.M. 1967. The Strength Properties of Timbers. Forest Products Research Bulletin, No. 50 (Spersedes Bulletin No. 45). Ministry of Technology, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London.

Lavers, G.M.,1983,The Strength Properties of Timber (3rd ed. revised Moore G.L.,Forest Products Research Laboratory, Princes Risborough, Building Research,Establishment Report (formerly Bulletin No.50)

Lincoln, W.A. 1986. World Woods in Color. Linden Publishing Co. Inc. Fresno, California.

Longwood, F.R.,1962,Commercial Timbers of the Caribbean,U.S.A. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook,No.207

Nairn, P.M., Editor. 1936. Wood Specimens - 100 Reproductions in Color - A Series of Selected Timbers Reproduced in Natural Color with Introduction and Annotations by H.A. Cox. The Nema Press, Proprietors of Wood, London.

Patterson, D. 1988. Commercial Timbers of the World. Fifth Edition. Gower Technical Press, Aldershot, UK. ix + 339 pp.

Patterson, D.,1988,Commercial Timbers of the World, 5th Edition,Gower Technical Press

Redding, L.W.,1971,Resistance of Timbers to Impregnation with Creosote,Forest Products Research Laboratory, Princes Risborough, Building Research,Establishment Bulletin No.54 pp.43

Rendle, B.J.,1969,World Timbers (3 Vols.,Ernest Benn Ltd. London

Rijsdijk, L.F. and Laming, P.B.,1994,Physical and Related Properties of 145 Timbers, Information for,Practice,TNO Building and Construction Research Centre for Timber Research Kluwer,Academic Publishers

Smith, D.N.,1959,The Natural Durability of Timber,Forest Products Research Laboratory, Princes Risborough, Building Research,Establishment Record,No.30

South African Lumber Millers Assoc.,1969,Notes on some Commercially Available Hardwoods,S.A.L.M.A. Timber Info. Centre Timber Technical Guide,No.1

T.R.A.D.A.,1942,Home-grown timber trees - their characteristics, cultivation and Uses,TRADA

Tamolang, F.N., Martawijaya, A., Kartasujana, I., Kadir, K., Parwira, S.,1992,Indonesian Wood Atlas Volume II,Department of Forestry, Agency for Forestry Research and Development,,Bogor-Indonesia

Thomas, A.V.,1964,Timbers Used in the Boat Building Industry A Survey,Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Forest Products Research,Laboratory

Timber Development Association Ltd.,1955,World Timbers (3 Vols.,Timber Development Association Ltd.

Titmuss, F.H. 1965. Commercial Timbers of the World. Third Edition (Enlarged of A Concise Encyclopedia of World Timbers). The Technical Press Ltd., London.

Titmuss, F.H.,1965,Commercial Timbers of the World,Technical Press Ltd., London, 3rd edition

Wood, A.D.,1963,Plywoods of the World: Their Development, Manufacture and,Application,Johnston & Bacon Ltd. Edinburgh & London








Search the web for anything relating to wood and forest products.


























Search the web for anything relating to wood and forest products.