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Blunting Effect
Boring
Carving
Comments
Common Names
Common Uses
Countries of Distribution
Cutting Resistance
Distribution Overview
Drying Defects
Ease of Drying
Environmental Profile
Family Name
Gluing
Grain
Heartwood Color
Kiln Schedules
Luster
Mortising
Moulding
Movement in Service
Nailing
Natural Durability
Numerical Data
Odor
Painting
Planing
Polishing
Product Sources
References
Regions of Distribution
Resistance to Impregnation
Resistance to Splitting
Response to Hand Tools
Routing & Recessing
Sanding
Sapwood Color
Scientific Name
Screwing
Staining
Steam Bending
Strength Properties
Substitutes
Texture
Trade Name
Turning
Varnishing
Veneering Qualities

Scientific Name
Fraxinus americana

Trade Name
White ash

Family Name
Oleaceae

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Common Names
American ash, Ash, Biltmore ash, Biltmore white ash, Black ash, Canadian ash, Cane ash, Fresno, Green ash, Mountain ash, Quebec ash, Red ash, White ash, White river ash

Regions of Distribution
North America

Countries of Distribution [VIEW MAP]
Canada, United States

Common Uses
Agricultural implements, Baseball bats, Baskets, Bedroom suites, Beehives, Bent Parts, Billiard-cue butts, Boat building (general), Boat building: framing, Boxes and crates, Cabinetmaking, Chairs, Chests, Concealed parts (Furniture), Cooperages, Decorative plywood, Decorative veneer, Desks, Dining-room furniture, Dowell pins, Dowells, Drawer sides, Excelsior, Figured veneer, Fine furniture, Floor lamps, Food containers, Fuelwood, Furniture , Furniture components, Furniture squares or stock, Furniture, Handles, Handles: general, Hatracks, Hockey sticks, Joinery, Kitchen cabinets, Light construction, Living-room suites, Oars, Office furniture, Paddles, Paneling, Plywood, Radio - stereo - TV cabinets, Railroad cars, Railroad ties, Rustic furniture, Shafts/Handles, Skis, Sporting Goods, Stools, Tables , Tables, Tool handles, Toys, Utility furniture, Vehicle parts, Veneer, Wheel spokes, Wheels

Environmental Profile
Generally secure within its natural habitat
Data source is Nature Conservancy
Abundant


Distribution Overview
White ash inhabits eastern North America. It occurs from Nova Scotia west to eastern Minnesota and south to Texas and northern Florida


Heartwood Color
Brown
Yellow
Greenish to greyish
Pale brown
Brown
Yellow to golden-yellow to orange


Sapwood Color
Brown
Yellow
White to yellow
Paler than heartwood
Clearly differentiated from the heartwood
White in color


Grain
Straight
Figure
Growth rings (figure)
Even
Closed
Stripe (figure)

Generally straight, but not always
Clear growth rings (figure)
Striped figure

Burrs

Texture
Fine
Even or uniform
Uniform
Coarse
Fine

The material is normally coarse-textured.

Luster
Medium
Lustrous


Natural Durability
Durable
Moderately durable
Non durable
Susceptible to attack from powder post (Lyctid & Bostrychid) beetles
Very little natural resistance
Susceptible to attack by fungi
Sapwood susceptible to attack by powder post beetles
Moderately durable


Odor
No specific smell or taste


Kiln Schedules
Drying (speed) is fast
T8-B4 (4/4)
T5-B3 (8/4)US


Drying Defects
Discoloration
Slight end splitting


Ease of Drying
Slowly
Fairly Easy
Reconditioning Treatement
Little degrade
Moderately Difficult to Difficult
Easy
Variable results.

Dries faster than average. Kiln-drying yields satisfactory results, low temperatures required

Product Sources
Supplies of Ash are plentiful on the US market. The cost of Ash, which was once moderate, is steadily rising.

Substitutes
African celtis (Celtis mildbraedii), Axlewood (Anogeissus latifolia), White tabebuia (Tabebuia insignis) and Santa maria (Calophyllum brasiliense)

Strength properties of the following species are similar to White ash: Silver birch (Betula pendula) for toughness, Brown sterculia (Sterculia rhinopetala) for toughnesss and Australian blackwood (Acacia melanoxylon) for impact strength.

Comments
General finishing qualities are rated as good

Blunting Effect
Little
Blunting effect on machining is moderate

There is moderate blunting effect on cutting tools.

Boring
Fair to good results


He wood is characteristically very easy to bore.

Carving
Fair to Good Results


Cutting Resistance
Easy to saw
Very little cutting resistance


Gluing
Very Good to Excellent Results
Fair to Good Results
Moderate gluing properties
Satisfactory gluing properties
Easy to glue


Mortising
Fair to Good Results
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Poor mortising properties


Moulding
Fair to Good Results
Fairly Easy to Very Easy


Movement in Service
Stable

Superior to Red oak

Nailing
Fair to Good Results
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Poor to Very Poor Results
Holds nails well
Pre-boring recommended
Good resistance to splitting while nailing


Planing
Very Good to Excellent Results
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Fairly easy to plane


Resistance to Impregnation
Resistant sapwood
Resistant heartwood
Resistant
Heartwood is permeable

He wood responds well to preservative treatment.

Resistance to Splitting
Poor


Response to Hand Tools
Responds Readily
Easy to Work
Easy to machine
Moderate working qualities
Reponds well


Routing & Recessing
Fair to Good Results
Fairly Easy to Very Easy


Sanding
Very Good to Excellent Results
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Satisfactory


Screwing
Fair to Good Results
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Screwing yields good results
Fairly good screwing properties


Turning
Fair to Good Results
Properties are rather poor


Veneering Qualities
There is slight to moderate drying degrade and the potential for buckles and splits
Moderately easy to veneer

Sliced into decorative veneers for paneling and furniture uses. Used to manufacture plywood

Steam Bending
Fair to Good Results
Very good
Good
Fair/moderate (,50% of pieces are unbroken during steam bending)


Painting
Very Good to Excellent Results
Fair to Good Results
Satisfactory results


Polishing
Fair to Good Results
Good results


Staining
Finish is generally good

Often finished in black

Varnishing
Fair to Good Results
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Satisfactory


Strength Properties
Density (dry weight) = 38-45 lbs/cu. ft.
Hardness (side grain) = soft
Bending strength (MOR) = medium
Density (dry weight) = 46-52 lbs/cu. ft.
Work to Maximum Load = very low
Max. crushing strength = low
Shrinkage, Tangential = moderate
Shrinkage, Tangential = fairly large
Shrinkage, Radial = moderate
Shrinkage, Radial = fairly large
Hardness (side grain) = medium
Density (dry weight) = 53-60
Density (dry weight) = 31-37 lbs/cu. ft.
Bending strength (MOR) = low


Numerical Data
ItemGreenDryEnglish
Bending Strength892814533psi
Crushing Strength7501313psi
Density42lbs/ft3
Hardness1264lbs
Impact Strength4646inches
Maximum Crushing Strength37996763psi
Shearing Strength2079psi
Static Bending45727501psi
Stiffness146217201000 psi
Work to Maximum Load1016inch-lbs/in3
Specific Gravity0.520.62
Weight4240lbs/ft3
Radial Shrinkage4%
Tangential Shrinkage7%
Volumetric Shrinkage13%
ItemGreenDryMetric
Bending Strength6271021kg/cm2
Crushing Strength5292kg/cm2
Density673kg/m3
Hardness573kg
Impact Strength116116cm
Maximum Crushing Strength267475kg/cm2
Shearing Strength146kg/cm2
Static Bending321527kg/cm2
Stiffness1021201000 kg/cm2
Work to Maximum Load0.701.12cm-kg/cm3
Specific Gravity0.520.62
Weight673641kg/m3
Radial Shrinkage4%
Tangential Shrinkage7%

References
Betts, H.S.,1945,American Woods - Ash,USDA, Forest Service American Woods

Boone, R.S., C.J. Kozlik, P.J. Bois, E.M. Wengert. 1988. Dry Kiln Schedules for Commercial Hardwoods - Temperate and Tropical. USDA, Forest Service, General Technical Report FPL-GTR-57, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin.

Brown, H.P. and Panshin, A.J.,1940,Commercial Timbers of the United States Their structure, identification,,properties and uses,McGraw-Hill, London

Brown, W.H.,1978,Timbers of the World: - No.7 North America,TRADA

Canadian Forestry Service. 1981. Canadian Woods - Their Properties and Uses. Third Edition. E.J. Mullins and T.S. McKnight, Editors. Published by University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Canada.

Clifford, N.,1957,Timber Identification for the Builder and Architect,Leonard Hill (Books) LTD. London

Farmer, R.H.,1972,Handbook of Hardwoods,HMSO

Harrar, E.S.,1942,Some Physical Properties of Modern Cabinet Woods 3. Directional and Volume,Shrinkage,Tropical Woods,9(71, pp26-32

HMSO, 1981. Handbook of Hardwoods, 2nd Edition. Revised by R.H. Farmer. Department of the Environment, Building Research Establishment, Princes Risborough Laboratory, Princes Risborough, Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire.

I.U.F.R.O.,1973,Veneer Species of the World,Assembled at F.P.L. Madison on behalf of I.U.F.R.O. Working Party on,Slicing and Veneer Cutting

Jackson, A. and D. Day. 1991. Good Wood Handbook - The Woodworker's Guide to Identifying, Selecting and Using the Right Wood. Betterway Publications, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Kaiser, J. Wood of the Month: Ash - A Big Leaguer's Choice. Wood and Wood Products, September, 1987. Page 40.

Kline, M. 1983. Fraxinus americana - White ash. In A Guide to Useful Woods of the World, Flynn Jr., J.H., Editor. King Philip Publishing Co., Portland, Maine. Page 162.

Kloot, N.H., Bolza, E.,1961,Properties of Timbers Imported into Australia,C.S.I.R.O. Forest Products Division Technological Paper,No.12

Little, E.L. 1980. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Trees - Eastern Region. Published by Arthur A. Knopf, New York.

Markwardt, L.J., Wilson, T.R.C.,1935,Strength and related properties of woods grown in the United States,U.S.A. Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin,No.479

Mullins, E.J. and McKnight, T.S.,1981,Canadian Woods Their Properties and Uses,University of Toronto Press 3rd Edition

NWFA. 1994. Wood Species Used in Wood Flooring. Technical Publication No. A200, National Wood Flooring Association, Manchester, MO.

Panshin, A.J. and C. deZeeuw. Textbook of Wood Technology. McGraw-Hill Series in Forest Resources. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.

Patterson, D.,1988,Commercial Timbers of the World, 5th Edition,Gower Technical Press

Record, S.J., Hess, R.W.,1943,Timbers of the New World,Yale University Press

Rendle, B.J.,1969,World Timbers (3 Vols.,Ernest Benn Ltd. London

Stone, H.,1924,The Timbers of Commerce and their Identification,William Rider & Sons Ltd. London

Titmuss, F.H.,1965,Commercial Timbers of the World,Technical Press Ltd., London, 3rd edition

U.S.D.A. Forest Service,1974,Wood Handbook,U.S.A. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service Handbook,72

USDA. 1987. Wood Handbook:Wood as an Engineering Material. Agriculture Handbook No. 72. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Madison, Wisconsin.

USDA. 1988. Dry Kiln Operators Manual, Preliminary Copy. Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin.








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