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Blunting Effect
Comments
Common Names
Common Uses
Countries of Distribution
Cutting Resistance
Distribution Overview
Drying Defects
Ease of Drying
Environmental Profile
Family Name
Gluing
Grain
Heartwood Color
Kiln Drying Rate
Kiln Schedules
Luster
Mortising
Moulding
Movement in Service
Nailing
Natural Durability
Natural Growth Defects
Numerical Data
Odor
Painting
Planing
Polishing
Product Sources
References
Regions of Distribution
Resistance to Impregnation
Resistance to Splitting
Response to Hand Tools
Sapwood Color
Scientific Name
Screwing
Staining
Steam Bending
Strength Properties
Synonyms
Texture
Toxicity
Trade Name
Tree Identification
Tree Size
Turning
Varnishing
Veneering Qualities

Scientific Name
Gonystylus macrophyllum

Trade Name
Ramin

Family Name
Thymelaeaceae

Synonyms
Gonystylus miquelianus, Gonystylus obovatus, Gonystylus philippinensis


Wood Image 1

Common Names
Ainunura, Fungunigalo, Garu-buaja, Lanutan-bagio, Lanutan-bagyo, Latareko, Melawis, Nunura, Petata, Ramin, Ramin telur, Soloman Islands ramin

Regions of Distribution
Oceania and S.E. Asia

Countries of Distribution [VIEW MAP]
Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Islands

Common Uses
Boat building: framing, Boxes and crates, Broom handles, Brush backs & handles, Canoes, Carvings, Decorative veneer, Door, Flooring, Furniture , Furniture, Heavy construction, Interior construction, Joinery, Light construction, Mathematical instruments, Moldings, Paneling , Paneling, Particleboard, Picture frames, Plywood corestock, Plywood, Tool handles, Toys, Turnery, Veneer, Veneer: decorative

Environmental Profile
Status unsure as a result of insufficient information
Data source is World Conservation Monitoring Center


Distribution Overview
Southeast Asia, in Sarawak and western Malaysia.

Heartwood Color
Green/grey
Black
Brown
Yellow to golden-yellow to orange
Pale brown
White to cream
Straw brown
Pale red to pink

The wood is rather plain in appearance, with both sapwood and heartwood having a pale straw or creamy-brown color.

Sapwood Color
White
Yellow
Same as heartwood
Color not distinct from heartwood


Grain
Straight
Interlocked
Figure
Even
Weak (figure)
Growth rings (figure)

Straight
Interlocked
Weak figure
Shallowly interlocked
Clear growth rings (figure)


Texture
Fine
Fine to medium
Medium
Fine
Even textured


Luster
Dull


Natural Growth Defects
Brittleheart is rare or absent. When present, it is sparse in amount
Brittleheart is often frequent and extensive


Natural Durability
Very durable
Non durable
Sapwood is susceptible to wood staining fungal attack
Susceptible to attack from powder post (Lyctid & Bostrychid) beetles
Pinworms (ambrosia beetles) may be present in the felled log
Perishable
Pinworms (ambrosia beetles) often present in the standing tree
Heartwood is susceptible to wood staining fungal attack
Susceptible to marine borer attack
Susceptible to attack from termites (Isoptera)
Sapwood susceptible to attack by powder post beetles
Sapwood susceptible to attack by dry wood termites
Resistant to attack from termites (Isoptera)
Little natural resistance


Odor
No specific smell or taste


Toxicity
Unspecified toxicity
Dermatitic effects

Sharp pointed bark fibers may cause skin irritation in some individuals

Kiln Schedules
Kiln Drying Rate (in days) is rapid
Drying (speed) is fast
UK=C US=T3C2/T3C1 Fr=3
T3-C2 (4/4); T2-C1 (8/4) US
Schedule C (4/4) United Kingdom

Schedule B suggested for drying stock thicker than 1.5 inches (37 mm).

Drying Defects
Moderate surface checking
Moderate end spitting
Surface checks
Slight twist/warp
Slight end splitting
Slight cupping
No twisting or warping
End checks


Ease of Drying
Moderately Difficult to Difficult
Easy
Moderate
Dries well under good controlled conditions
Dip treat with anti-stain solution soon after conversion and before stacking.

The timber is reported to season readily with little degrade, but it must be dipped promptly after conversion since it is susceptible to staining by mould growth. Air-dry material is reported to kiln-dry readily, but is accompanied by a strong, unpleasant odor.

Kiln Drying Rate
Rapid (<10 days for boards < 32 mm, to <30 days for boards >= 63 mm)


Tree Identification
Bole/stem form is not buttressed
Bole/stem form is straight
Bole/stem form is fluted


Tree Size
Tree height is 10-20 m
Tree height is 0-10 m
Sapwood width is 20-25 cm
Sapwood width is greater than 25 cm
Bole length is 0-10 m


Boles are often long, straight and well-formed.

Product Sources
Ramin is rather difficult to obtain in small quantities because of limitations on export of sawn log from producing countries. Very limited quantities are available on the European market at a price that is comparable to that of the medium cost hardwoods

Comments
General finishing qualities are rated as good

Blunting Effect
Moderate
Blunting effect on machining is moderate
Cuting edges are dulled moderately


Cutting Resistance
Fairly Difficult to Very Difficult to saw
Cutting Resistance with dry wood is easy
Low cutting resistance
Cutting Resistance with green wood is easy


Gluing
Fairly Difficult to Very Difficult
Easy to glue
Good gluing properties


Mortising
Easy to mortise


Moulding
Good finishing results
Easy to mould


Movement in Service
Fair to Good Stability - Medium Movement
Large
Small
Not stable/prone to move
Medium


Nailing
Possible if prebored
Difficult to nail


Planing
Fairly Difficult to Very Difficult
Fair planing properties
Easy to plane
Difficult to plane

The grain tends to break-out when working end-grain material with dull cutting edges.

Resistance to Impregnation
Resistant heartwood
Resistant sapwood
Heartwood is permeable
Sapwood is permeable
Good response to preservative treatment


Resistance to Splitting
Poor


Response to Hand Tools
Fairly Difficult to Difficult to Work
Easy to machine
Responds fairly well to hand tools


Screwing
Easy to screw


Turning
Fair to Good Results
Fairly Difficult to Very Difficult
Very Good to Excellent Results
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Easy to turn


Veneering Qualities
There is slight to moderate drying degrade and the potential for buckles and splits
No drying degrade. Dries flat without splitting
Easy to cut


Steam Bending
Very poor
Poor

The wood has a tendency to buckle in steam bending.

Painting
Satisfactory results
Good results
Easy


Polishing
Fair to Good Results
Very Good to Excellent Results
Satisfactory results
Requires a filler
Good results

Surface requires a small amount of filler for satisfactory polishing results.

Staining
Finish is generally satisfactory
Good staining qualities
Finish is generally good


Varnishing
Good results


Strength Properties
Bending strength (MOR) = medium
Shearing strength (parallel to grain) = low
Max. crushing strength = high
Hardness (side grain) = soft
Shrinkage, Tangential = moderate
Modulus of Elasticity (stiffness) = medium
Density (dry weight) = 38-45 lbs/cu. ft.
Shrinkage, Radial = small
Shrinkage, Tangential = fairly large
Modulus of Elasticity (stiffness) = high
Density (dry weight) = 31-37 lbs/cu. ft.
Shrinkage, Tangential = small
Shrinkage, Radial = very small
Shrinkage, Radial = moderate
Max. crushing strength = medium
Hardness (side grain) = medium
Shrinkage, Tangential = large
Heavy
Hardness = medium
Density (dry weight) = 46-52 lbs/cu. ft.
Bending strength (MOR) = high

The timber has high bending strength properties, medium stiffness, and low resistance to shock loads. It is heavy and moderately hard.

Numerical Data
ItemGreenDryEnglish
Bending Strength878414410psi
Crushing Strength5641845psi
Density38lbs/ft3
Hardness1107lbs
Impact Strength28inches
Maximum Crushing Strength50177846psi
Shearing Strength1566psi
Static Bending41468014psi
Stiffness163120001000 psi
Toughness214inch-lbs
Specific Gravity0.480.54
Weight3929lbs/ft3
Radial Shrinkage3%
Tangential Shrinkage8%
ItemGreenDryMetric
Bending Strength6171013kg/cm2
Crushing Strength39129kg/cm2
Density608kg/m3
Hardness502kg
Impact Strength71cm
Maximum Crushing Strength352551kg/cm2
Shearing Strength110kg/cm2
Static Bending291563kg/cm2
Stiffness1141401000 kg/cm2
Toughness246cm-kg
Specific Gravity0.480.54
Weight624464kg/m3
Radial Shrinkage3%

References
Bolza, E.,1975,Properties and Uses of 175 Timber Species from Papua New Guinea and West,Irian,C.S.I.R.O. Div. Building Research Report,no.34

Bolza, E.,1981,The Mechanical properties of 33 Solomon Islands timbers,C.S.I.R.O. Div. Building Research. Technical Paper (2nd series) No.37

British Woodworking Federation. 1995. Which Wood . Published by the British Woodworking Federation, Broadway House, Tothill Street, London.

Brown, W.H.,1978,Timbers of the World, No. 4 South East Asia,TRADA, Red Booklet Series

Burgess, P.F.,1966,Timbers of Sabah,Sabah Forest Record, no.6

C.S.I.R.O.,1977,Ramin (Gonystylus spp.,CSIRO Division of Building Research Information Service Sheet No.10-10

I. Soerianegara and R.H.M.J. Lemmens (Editors,1993,Plant Resources of South-East Asia 5,(PROSEA, 1,Timber trees: Major commercial timbers,Pudoc Scientific Publishers, Wageningen 1993

Jackson, A. and D. Day. 1992. Good Wood Handbook - The Wood worker's Guide to Identifying, Selecting and Using the Right Wood. HarperCollins Publishers, London.

Lauricio, F. M., Bellosillo, S. B., The Mechanical and Related Properties of Philippine Woods, The Lumberman, 12(5):A-H.

Lavers, G.M.,1983,The Strength Properties of Timber (3rd ed. revised Moore G.L.,Forest Products Research Laboratory, Princes Risborough, Building Research,Establishment Report (formerly Bulletin No.50)

Lee, Y.H., et al,1974,Commercial Timbers of Peninsular Malaysia,Kuala Lumpur Malaysia Department of Forestry Peninsular Malaysia and,Malaysian Timber Industry Board

Lincoln, W.A. 1986. World Woods in Color. Linden Publishing Co. Inc. Fresno, California.

Meniado, J.A., America, W.M.,1981,The wood Lanutan-Bagyo (Gonystylus macrophyllus (Mig) Airy Shaw) Family:,Thymelaeceae,Forpride Digest 10(3/4) pp63-8

Osborne, L.D.,1970,Decay resistance of South-West Pacific rain forest timbers,C.S.I.R.O.,Div. for Prod., Tech. paper No.56

Patterson, D.,1988,Commercial Timbers of the World, 5th Edition,Gower Technical Press

Pleydell, G.J.,1970,Timbers of the British Solomon Islands,United Africa Company (Timber) Ltd, London

Solomon Islands, Ministry of Natural Resources, Forestry Division,1979,Solomon Islands Timbers - Minor Species,Solomon Islands, Ministry of Natural Resources, Forestry Division, Honiara,Timber Booklet 2

WCMC. 1992. Conservation Status Listing: Trees and Timbers of the World. World Conservation Monitoring Center (WCMC, Plants Program, 219 Huntingdon Road, Cambridge, CB3 ODL, United Kingdom.








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