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Blunting Effect
Boring
Carving
Comments
Common Names
Common Uses
Countries of Distribution
Cutting Resistance
Distribution Overview
Drying Defects
Ease of Drying
Environmental Profile
Family Name
Gluing
Grain
Heartwood Color
Kiln Drying Rate
Kiln Schedules
Luster
Mortising
Moulding
Movement in Service
Nailing
Natural Durability
Natural Growth Defects
Numerical Data
Odor
Planing
Polishing
Product Sources
References
Regions of Distribution
Resistance to Impregnation
Response to Hand Tools
Routing & Recessing
Sanding
Sapwood Color
Scientific Name
Screwing
Silica Content
Staining
Strength Properties
Substitutes
Synonyms
Texture
Trade Name
Tree Identification
Tree Size
Turning
Veneering Qualities

Scientific Name
Guibourtia demeusei

Trade Name
Bubinga

Family Name
Leguminosae

Synonyms
Copaifera laurentii


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Common Names
Akume, Bubinga, Buvenga, Cameroons gum copal, Eban, Ebana, Essingang, Gabon kevazingo, Gum copal, Irun-nduk, Kasasesase, Kevazingo, Lianu, Lukunfu, Lusase, Mutenye, Ngulupang, Okweni, Ovang, Oveng, Waka, Waku

Regions of Distribution
Africa

Countries of Distribution [VIEW MAP]
Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Liberia, Nigeria, South Africa, Uganda, Zaire

Common Uses
Agricultural implements, Boat building (general), Boat building, Boxes and crates, Brush backs & handles, Cabinetmaking, Canoes, Carvings, Chairs, Chests, Concealed parts (Furniture), Decorative veneer, Desks, Dining-room furniture, Domestic flooring, Dowell pins, Dowells, Drawer sides, Figured veneer, Fine furniture, Floor lamps, Flooring, Furniture , Furniture components, Furniture squares or stock, Furniture, Handles, Hatracks, Heavy construction, Interior construction, Joinery, Kitchen cabinets, Lifeboats, Light construction, Living-room suites, Millwork, Mine timbers, Moldings, Musical instruments, Office furniture, Paneling, Parquet flooring, Plywood, Radio - stereo - TV cabinets, Railroad ties, Rustic furniture, Shafts/Handles, Shipbuilding, Stair rails, Stairworks, Stools, Stringers, Sub-flooring, Tables , Tool handles, Turnery, Utility furniture, Vehicle parts, Veneer, Veneer: decorative

Environmental Profile
Status unsure as a result of insufficient information
Status unknown in many of its growth areas
Generally secure within most of its natural habitat, but note exceptions.
Extinct, Endangered, Vulnerable, or Rare in some parts of its natural range
Data source is World Conservation Monitoring Center

Extinct, Endangered, Rare, or Vulnerable in Uganda. Its status in the wild is currently listed as unknown due to insufficient information in the Central African Republic, Gabon, Liberia, Nigeria, and Zaire

Distribution Overview
Central and north Africa (Cameroon, Gabon) and usually found scattered in open savannah woodland among other species.

Heartwood Color
Brown
Black
Yellow
Pale red to pink
Reddish brown
Red
Brown

The heartwood is medium red-brown in color, usually with lighter red to purple veins

Sapwood Color
White
Yellow
Brown
White to yellow

The sapwood is generally white with a grayish cast, ivory or ivory white with streaks, or brownish white.

Grain
Distinct (figure)
Straight
Figure
Interlocked
Closed
Even
Wavy

Straight
Distinct figure
Interlocked
Wavy
Distinct and very fine figure

Annual rings are distinct, and usually appear as darker summerwood. Fine pores, which often contain a reddish gum, are diffused throughout the wood

Texture
Medium
Fine
Medium coarse to coarse
Coarse
Medium
Fine to medium


Luster
Low
High


Natural Growth Defects
Gum/resin streaks


Natural Durability
Very durable
Perishable
Non-durable
Resistant to attack from termites (Isoptera)
Resistant to attack from powder post (Lyctid & Bostrychid) beetles
Durable
Susceptible to attack from termites (Isoptera)
Susceptible to attack from powder post (Lyctid & Bostrychid) beetles
Moderately resistant to marine borer attack
Moderately resistant to attack by marine borers
Moderately durable
High resistance to termite attack

The timber is highly resistant to termite attack, and is moderately resistant to marine borers due to the presence of silica.

Odor
No specific smell or taste


Silica Content
Likely to have significant impact on machining
Contains silica


Kiln Schedules
Dry at a slow speed
T2 - C2 (4/4); T2 - C1 (8/4) US


Drying Defects
Slight surface checking
Slight end splitting
No end splitting
Moderate end spitting

Stock should be seasoned slowly to prevent distortion and checking.

Ease of Drying
Rapidly
Reconditioning Treatement
Little degrade
Fairly Easy
Easy

The material is reported to season readily with little degrade. Gum exudation may present some difficulty in drying.

Kiln Drying Rate
Naturally dries quickly


Tree Identification
Bole/stem form is buttressed
Bole/stem form is straight
Bole/stem form is cylindrical


Tree Size
Bole length is 20-30 m
Tree height is 20-30 m
Tree height is 30-40 m


Product Sources
The ITTO reports that the species is a regular source of timber for export.

Substitutes
Pao rosa (Swartzia fistuloides) and Muiracataria (Astronium leicointei)

Comments
General finishing qualities are rated as good

The trade name 'Kevazingo' is reserved for rotary-cut veneers which display the exotic coloring of Bubinga to the best advantage

Blunting Effect
High to severe
Cutting edges dulled moderately to severely
Blunting effect on machining is moderate


Boring
Fairly easy to very easy
Fair results
Easy

Despite its hardness, the timber bores well but gum pockets may cause some difficulty

Carving
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Good carving characteristics

Carving properties are good, but gum pockets may be troublesome

Cutting Resistance
Cutting Resistance with dry wood is easy
Low cutting resistance


Gluing
Easy to glue
Difficult to glue

Gum pockets may interfere with gluing operations

Mortising
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Easy to mortise

Gum pockets may cause some difficulty, but the material generally mortises well.

Moulding
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Easy to mould

A reduced angle of 15 degrees is recommended in moulding interlocked and irregular grained material.

Movement in Service
Stable

The timber is dimensionally stable after drying, and retains its shape well after manufacture

Nailing
Difficult to nail
Holds nails well
Good nailing qualities
Easy to nail


Planing
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Fairly Difficult to Very Difficult
Fair to Good Results
Easy to plane
Planes well, to a good finish
Special attention suggested for best results

A reduced angle of 15 degrees is required in planing interlocked and irregular grained material to prevent grain from picking up and tearing.

Resistance to Impregnation
Resistant sapwood
Resistant heartwood
Heartwood is resistant
Sapwood is moderately resistant


Response to Hand Tools
Easy to Work
Fairly Difficult to Difficult to Work
Easy to machine
Good response to hand tools

The wood works well with hand tools, despite its hardness.

Routing & Recessing
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Good in both routing and recessing.


Sanding
Very good response to sanding
Sanding finish is excellent


Screwing
Possible if prebored


Turning
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Good results
Easy to turn

Turning characteristics are rated as generally good, but gum exudation may cause some trouble.

Veneering Qualities
Various figures can yield decorative veneers

Some logs, mainly from Gabon, are highly figured and are converted into attractive veneers for decorative applications such as, panelling, inlay work, high class furniture, and fancy turnery work

Polishing
Very Good to Excellent Results
Fair to Good Results
Satisfactory results
Excellent results


Staining
Finish is generally satisfactory
Easy


Strength Properties
Shrinkage, Tangential = large
Shrinkage, Radial = fairly large
Bending strength (MOR) = high
Max. crushing strength = high
Shrinkage, Volumetric = moderate
Shrinkage, Volumetric = large
Shrinkage, Radial = large
Modulus of Elasticity (stiffness) = medium
Hardness (side grain) = very hard
Density (dry weight) = 53-60 lbs/cu. ft
Density (dry weight) = 46-52 lbs/cu. ft.
Bending strength (MOR) = very high
Shrinkage, Volumetric = fairly large
Shrinkage, Tangential = moderate
Shrinkage, Tangential = fairly large
Shearing strength (parallel to grain) = medium
Shearing strength (parallel to grain) = low
Max. crushing strength = very high
Shrinkage, Tangential = small
Shearing strength (parallel to the grain) = very high
Modulus of Elasticity (stiffness) = very high
Max. crushing strength = medium
Hardness (side grain) = medium
Hardness (side grain) = hard
Density (dry weight) = 61-67 lbs/cu. ft
Bending strength (MOR) = medium


Numerical Data
ItemGreenDryEnglish
Bending Strength1534921735psi
Density55lbs/ft3
Hardness2559lbs
Maximum Crushing Strength73699869psi
Shearing Strength2143psi
Stiffness189320821000 psi
Specific Gravity0.8
Weight5352lbs/ft3
Radial Shrinkage5%
Tangential Shrinkage9%
Volumetric Shrinkage12%
ItemGreenDryMetric
Bending Strength10791528kg/cm2
Density881kg/m3
Hardness1160kg
Maximum Crushing Strength518693kg/cm2
Shearing Strength150kg/cm2
Stiffness1331461000 kg/cm2
Specific Gravity0.8
Weight849833kg/m3
Radial Shrinkage5%
Tangential Shrinkage9%

References
Bois et Forets des Tropiques,1949,Bubinga (Guiboutia spp,Bois et Forets des Tropiques,No.12,pp429-432

Bois et Forets des Tropiques,1977,Bubinga (Guibourtia spp,Bois et Forets des Tropiques,No.173, pp23-35

Bolza, E., Keating, W.G.,1972,African Timbers - the Properties, Uses and Characteristics of 700 Species,C.S.I.R.O. Div. of Building Research

Edlin, H.L. 1969. What Wood is That?: A Manual of Wood Identification. A Studio Book, The Viking Press, New York.

Edlin, H.L.,1969,What wood is that? A Manual of Wood Identification,Jarrold and Sons Ltd. Norwich

Erfurth, T., Rusche, H.,1976,The Marketing of Tropical Wood A. Wood Species from African Moist Forests,F.A.O. Forestry Department

Farmer, R.H.,1972,Handbook of Hardwoods,HMSO

France - C.T.F.T.,1961,Resultats des Observations et des Essais effectues au C.T.F.T. sur Bubinga,(Guibourtia spp.,C.T.F.T.,Information Tec.,No.118

France - C.T.F.T.,1966,Bois Tropicaux,C.T.F.T. Publ.,12

HMSO. 1972. Handbook of Hardwoods. 2nd Edition. Revised by R.H. Farmer. Department of the Environment, Building Research Establishment, Princes Risborough Laboratory, Princes Risborough, Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire.

Hughes, J.F.,1971,The Principal Timber Trees of Cameroon,Unpublished data

ITTO. 1986. Tropical Timber Atlas, Volume 1 - Africa. International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) and Centre Technique Forestier Tropical (CTFT, 45bis, Avenue de la Belle Gabrielle, Nogent-sur-Marne Cedex, France.

Jackson, A. and D. Day. 1991. Good Wood Handbook - The Woodworker's Guide to Identifying, Selecting and Using the Right Wood. Betterway Publications, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Jay, B.A.,1968,Timbers of West Africa,TRADA, Red Booklet Series

Lebacq, L., Dechamps, R.,1967,Contribution a un Inventaire de Forets du Nord-kasai,Musee Royal de L'Afrique Centrale Belgium Annals Series 8 No.5

Lincoln, W.A. 1986. World Woods in Color. Linden Publishing Co. Inc., Fresno, California.

Organisation for European Economic Co-operation,1951,African Tropical Timber (Nomenclature, Description,OEEC

Perrot, E.,1921,Les Bois du Gabon,Larose Paris

Pieters, A.,1977,Essences Forestieres du Zaire,R.U.G. Gent Belguim

Rendle, B.J. Editor. 1969. World Timbers, Volume One - Europe & Africa. Published by Ernest Benn Limited, Bouverie House, Fleet Street, London.

Rendle, B.J.,1969,World Timbers (3 Vols.,Ernest Benn Ltd. London

Saint-Aubin, G. de,1963,La Foret du Gabon,CTFT Publ., No.21

Sallenave, P.,1955,Proprietes Phyiques et Mecaniques des Bois Tropicaux de l'Union Francaise,C.T.F.T

Sallenave, P.,1964,Proprietes Physiques et Mecaniques des Bois Tropicaux (Premier Supplement,C.T.F.T. Publ.,no.23

Sallenave, P.,1971,Proprietes Physiques et Mecaniques des Bois Tropicaux (Deuxieme,Supplement,C.T.F.T.

Takahashi, A.,1978,Compilation of Data on the Mechanical Properties of Foreign Woods (Part,III) Africa,Shimane University, Japan, Research Report on Foreign Wood No. 7

Unwin, A.H.,1920,West African Forests and Forestry,T. Fisher Unwin Ltd. London








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