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Blunting Effect
Boring
Carving
Certified Source
Comments
Common Names
Common Uses
Countries of Distribution
Cutting Resistance
Distribution Overview
Drying Defects
Ease of Drying
Environmental Profile
Family Name
Gluing
Grain
Heartwood Color
Kiln Drying Rate
Kiln Schedules
Luster
Mortising
Moulding
Movement in Service
Nailing
Natural Durability
Numerical Data
Odor
Planing
Polishing
Product Sources
References
Regions of Distribution
Resistance to Impregnation
Response to Hand Tools
Routing & Recessing
Sanding
Sapwood Color
Scientific Name
Screwing
Staining
Steam Bending
Strength Properties
Substitutes
Texture
Toxicity
Trade Name
Tree Size
Turning
Veneering Qualities
Weathering

Scientific Name
Juglans regia

Trade Name
European walnut

Family Name
Juglandaceae

Wood Image 1

Wood Image 1

Wood Image 1

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Wood Image 1

Common Names
Akhor, Akrot, Ancona, Auvergne, Basilikon, Binbogh, Black Sea walnut, British walnut, Carua, Caucasian walnut, Charmaghz, Charmagz, Circassian walnut, Dun, Dur, English walnut, European walnut, French walnut, Gretski aryekh, Italian walnut, Jaoz, Juglans, Ka, Kabotang, Kabshing, Kamkhol, Kaukasisches, Kharot, Khol, Khor, Ko-tiao, Kol, Krot, Nussbaumholz, Okhar, Orzech wloski, Persicon, Spanish walnut, Starga, Tagashing, Than, Thanka, Thitcha, Titcha, Ughz, Waghz, Walnut

Regions of Distribution
Eastern Europe, Mediterranean Sea Region, Oceania and S.E. Asia, Western Europe

Countries of Distribution [VIEW MAP]
Bosnia-Herzegovina, Burma, China, Croatia, France, Greece, India, Iran, Italy, Japan, Lebanon, Macedonia, Pakistan, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, Yugoslavia

Common Uses
Baskets, Bedroom suites, Boat building (general), Boxes and crates, Cabinetmaking, Carvings, Chairs, Chests, Decorative veneer, Desks, Dining-room furniture, Figured veneer, Fine furniture, Food containers, Furniture , Furniture, Gunstocks, Joinery, Living-room suites, Musical instruments, Musical instruments: piano, Paneling, Poles, Rifle stock, Sporting Goods, Tables, Toys, Turnery, Veneer, Veneer: decorative, Wardrobes

Environmental Profile
Generally secure within its natural habitat
Data source is World Conservation Monitoring Center

Classified as Vulnerable in China

Distribution Overview
Native to the Carpathian Mountains of eastern Europe, but often found growing wild eastward to Himalayas and China. Widely cultivated throughout this region and elsewhere in temperate zone of the Old and New World. Thrives in temperate Himalayas from 1,000 to 3,000 m altitude. In North America, thrives as far north as New York State. Introduced from Spain by way of Chile to California about 1867. In 1873 'Kaghazi' was introduced in northern California and a seedling 'Eureka' has become the important source of our commercial varieties. Thrives on rich, sandy loam, well-drained, slightly acid or neutral.

Heartwood Color
Red
Brown
Pink
Purple
Greenish to greyish
Brown
Dark brown
Black
Purple
Pale red to pink
Greyish brown
Contains dark streaks

Wood at the central portion of trees are often clearly distinct from the normal heartwood. This phenomenon occurs in timber with wavy grain. The color is reported to bleach because of the action of UV light and requires inhibitors in finishes.

Sapwood Color
White
Brown
Yellow
Paler than heartwood
Well defined
White to yellow
Clearly differentiated from the heartwood


Grain
Figure
Distinct (figure)
Straight
Wavy
Burrs (figure)
Very fine
Variable (figure)
Even
Closed
Mottled (figure)
Growth rings (figure)
Rays (figure)

Straight
Wavy
Distinct figure
Figure shows burrs
Figure occurrence is very fine and distinct
Variable figure
Mottled figure
Rays figure
Occasionally wavy
Irregular color
Clear growth rings (figure)


Texture
Medium
Fine
Even or uniform
Coarse
Medium coarse to coarse
Fine
Medium
Fine to medium


Luster
Medium
High
Low
Slightly lustrous
Pronounced
Lustrous


Natural Durability
Moderately durable
Durable
Susceptible to insect attack
Non-durable
Perishable
Resistant to termites
Non-resistant to powder post beetles
Resistant to powder post beetles
Moderately durable
Susceptible to attack from powder post (Lyctid & Bostrychid) beetles
Durable
Sapwood susceptible to attack by powder post beetles
Sapwood is vulnerable to attack by furniture beetles
Non durable


Logs are also susceptible to attack by the forest longhorn (Buprestid) beetles.
The heartwood is fairly durable.

Weathering
Excellent


Odor
No specific smell or taste


Toxicity
Respiratory effects
Dermatitic effects


Kiln Schedules
Dry at a slow speed


Drying Defects
Distortion
Splitting
Slight collapse and honeycomb
Moderate end spitting
Honeycomb may develop in thicker stock


Ease of Drying
Fairly Easy
Medium to High Shrinkage
Rapidly
Reconditioning Treatement
Easy
Moderate
Difficult
Variable results.


Radial: 3.0%
Shrinkage from green to 12% MC
Tangential: 5.5%
The wood dries well, but slowly.

Kiln Drying Rate
Naturally dries quickly
Rapid
Drying rate is fairly rapid to fast


Tree Size
Trunk diameter is 150-200 cm
Sapwood width is 5-10 cm
Trunk diameter is 200-250 cm
Trunk diameter is 100-150 cm
Tree height is 40-50 m
Tree height is 30-40 m
Tree height is 60-70 m
Tree height is 50-60 m
Bole length is 10-20 m
Tree height is 20-30 m


Diameter sometimes up to 150 cmMost trees are reported to grow in open areas, where they develop widespreading crowns of lustrous foliage

Product Sources
European walnut is very limited in availability, and can be obtained only in the form of veneer. It is typically priced in the expensive range.

Certified Source
Certified Source


Substitutes
Aningre (Aningeria altissima and Aningeria robusta), Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) and Ntene (Copaifera religiosa) are all possible substitutes.

Mutenye (Guibourtia arnoldiana) is a possible veneer substitute.

Comments
General finishing qualities are rated as good

Reaction with Metals - Blue-black stains may develop on surfaces of damp wood that comes in contact with iron or iron compounds.

Blunting Effect
Moderate
Blunting effect on machining is moderate
Medium effect


Boring
Fairly easy to very easy
Responds fairly well to boring


Carving
Fair to Good Results
Fairly Difficult to Very Difficult
Good carving properties


Cutting Resistance
Easy to saw
Cutting Resistance with green wood is easy
Cutting Resistance with dry wood is easy
Brown - medium value


Gluing
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Fair to Good Results
Easy to glue
Satisfactory gluing properties
Moderate gluing properties


Mortising
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Fair to Good Results
Poor to Very Poor Results
Fairly Difficult to Very Difficult
Yields a clean surface
Finishes satisfactorily


Moulding
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Fair to Good Results
Fairly Difficult to Very Difficult
Satisfactory moulding qualities


Movement in Service
Fair to Good Stability - Medium Movement
Excellent Stability - Small Movement
Medium
Stable
Small

Seasoned wood has moderate dimensional stability, and shows medium movement after manufacture.

Nailing
Poor to Very Poor Results
Pre-Boring Recommended
Fairly Difficult to Very Difficult
Holds nails well


Planing
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Fair to Good Results
Fairly Difficult to Very Difficult
Very Good to Excellent Results
Planed surfaces are relatively clean
Fairly easy to work


Resistance to Impregnation
Resistant heartwood
Resistant sapwood
Sapwood is permeable
Heartwood is resistant
Heartwood is highly resistant


Response to Hand Tools
Easy to Work
Responds Readily
Easy to machine
Moderate working qualities
Variable qualities

Response to hand tools is rated as fairly good

Routing & Recessing
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Fair to Good Results
Fairly Difficult to Very Difficult


Routing characteristics are rather fair

Sanding
Fair to Good Results
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Sanded surfaces are usually clean
Good sanding finish
Easy to sand


Screwing
Pre-boring recommended
Fairly Difficult to Very Difficult
Screwing yields good results


Turning
Fair to Good Results
Very Good to Excellent Results
Fairly Difficult to Very Difficult
Easy to turn
Good results
Responds well to machine tools to yield fairly clean surfaces


Veneering Qualities
Suitable for peeling
Veneers easily
Suitable for slicing
Difficult to veneer
Veneers moderately easy
No drying degrade
Easy to cut
Suitable for slicing
Suitable for peeling


Steam Bending
Very good
Moderate
Good


Polishing
Fair to Good Results
Very Good to Excellent Results
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Good results
Excellent results


Staining
Reacts with Iron to discolour wood
Finish is generally good
Excellent staining qualities

Uv light inhibitors are essential in finishes to prevent color from bleaching.

Strength Properties
Density (dry weight) = 38-45 lbs/cu. ft.
Density (dry weight) = 46-52 lbs/cu. ft.
Shrinkage, Radial = moderate
Shearing strength (parallel to grain) = low
Modulus of Elasticity (stiffness) = low
Max. crushing strength = medium
Bending strength (MOR) = medium
Work to Maximum Load = very low
Shrinkage, Tangential = fairly large
Shrinkage, Radial = large
Hardness (side grain) = soft
Density (dry weight) = 31-37 lbs/cu. ft.
Shrinkage, Tangential = small
Shrinkage, Tangential = moderate
Shrinkage, Tangential = large
Shearing strength (parallel to grain) = very low
Max. crushing strength = high
Hardness (side grain) = medium
Bending strength (MOR) = high

European walnut wood has high natural durabilty, high mechanical properties, weight, density, and high dimensional stability, qualities which are reported to combine to make it the best of all timbers for gun-stock.

Numerical Data
ItemGreenDryEnglish
Bending Strength1037616163psi
Density40lbs/ft3
Hardness1215lbs
Maximum Crushing Strength46627284psi
Shearing Strength1391psi
Stiffness135815681000 psi
Work to Maximum Load57inch-lbs/in3
Weight3931lbs/ft3
Radial Shrinkage5%
Tangential Shrinkage8%
ItemGreenDryMetric
Bending Strength7291136kg/cm2
Density641kg/m3
Hardness551kg
Maximum Crushing Strength327512kg/cm2
Shearing Strength97kg/cm2
Stiffness951101000 kg/cm2
Work to Maximum Load0.350.49cm-kg/cm3
Weight624496kg/m3
Radial Shrinkage5%

References
Bolza, E.,1976,Timber and Health,Div. Building Res. C.S.I.R.O. Australia

Brisbin, R.L. and Sonderman, D.L.,1973,American Woods - Birch,USDA, Forest Service American Woods FS-221

British Woodworking Federation. 1995. Which Wood . Published by the British Woodworking Federation, Broadway House, Tothill Street, London.

Brown, W.H.,1978,Timbers of the World, No. 6 Europe,TRADA, Red Booklet Series

Chen, C.L.,1962,The Physical Properties of 101 Chinese Woods,Forest Products Journal 12(7) pp339-42

Clifford, N.,1953,Commercial Hardwoods - Their Characteristics Identification and,Utilization,Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons Ltd. London

Clifford, N.,1957,Timber Identification for the Builder and Architect,Leonard Hill (Books) LTD. London

Coombes, A.J. 1992. Trees - The Visual Guide to More than 500 Species from Around the World. Eyewitness Handbooks. Published in the United States by Dorling Kinderley, Inc, New York. Distributed by Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.

Farmer, R.H.,1972,Handbook of Hardwoods,HMSO

Findlay, W.P.K.,1975,Timber: Properties and Uses,Crosby Lockwood Staples London,224PP

Forest Products Research Laboratory, U.K.,1937,A Handbook of Home-Grown Timbers,HMSO

Forest Products Research Laboratory, U.K.,1967,The Steam Bending Properties of various timbers,Forest Products Research Laboratory, Princes Risborough, Leaflet,No.45

Forest Products Research Laboratory, U.K.,1969,The Movement of Timbers,Forest Products Research Laboratory, Princes Risborough Technical Note,No.38

Forests Products Research Laboratory, U.K.,1956,A Handbook of Hardwoods,Forest Products Research Laboratory, Princes Risborough, Department of,Science and Industrial Research, Building Research Establishment

Harrar, E.S.,1942,Some Physical Properties of Modern Cabinet Woods 3. Directional and Volume,Shrinkage,Tropical Woods,9(71, pp26-32

HMSO. 1981. Handbook of Hardwoods, 2nd Edition. Revised by R.H. Farmer, Department of the Environment, Building Research Establishment, Princes Risborough Laboratory, Princes Risborough, Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire.

HMSO. 1985. Broadleaves. Forestry Commission Booklet No. 20. Text by H.E. Edlin. Revised by A.F. Mitchell. Forestry Commission, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London.

Howard, A.L.,1948,A Manual of Timbers of the World.,Macmillan & Co. Ltd. London 3rd ed.

Kaiser, Jo-ann. Wood of the Month: Claro - The West Coast Walnut. Wood and Wood Products, August, 1992. Page 50.

Kloot, N.H., Bolza, E.,1961,Properties of Timbers Imported into Australia,C.S.I.R.O. Forest Products Division Technological Paper,No.12

Kribs, D.A.,1950,Commercial and Foreign Woods on the American Market (a manual to their,structure, identification, uses and distribution,U.S.A. Penn. State College, Tropical Woods Laboratory

Kukachka, B.F.,1962,Characters of Some Imported Woods,U.S.A. Department of Agriculture, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison,,Foreign Wood Series,No.2242

Laidlaw, W.B.R. 1960. Guide to British Hardwoods. Published by Leonard Hill [Books] Limited, 9 Eden Street, N.W.1, London.

Lincoln, W. A. 1986. World Woods in Color. Linden Publishing Company, Inc., Fresno, California.

Patterson, D.,1988,Commercial Timbers of the World, 5th Edition,Gower Technical Press

Pearson, R.S., Brown, H.P.,1932,Commercial Timbers of India,Govt. Printer Calcutta,2 vols

Redding, L.W.,1971,Resistance of Timbers to Impregnation with Creosote,Forest Products Research Laboratory, Princes Risborough, Building Research,Establishment Bulletin No.54 pp.43

Rendle, B.J.,1969,World Timbers (3 Vols.,Ernest Benn Ltd. London

Saeed Ahmed, S., Mahammad Ayaz, and Taj Mohammad,1977,Properties and Uses of Commercial Timbers in Pakistan,Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar, Division of Forest Products Bulletin,No.3

Smith, D.N.,1959,The Natural Durability of Timber,Forest Products Research Laboratory, Princes Risborough, Building Research,Establishment Record,No.30

Stone, H.,1924,The Timbers of Commerce and their Identification,William Rider & Sons Ltd. London

T.R.A.D.A.,1942,Home-grown timber trees - their characteristics, cultivation and Uses,TRADA

Tewari, M.C., Jain, J.C.,1980,Utilization of Secondary Species,Journal of the National Building Organization 25(2) pp1-6

Timber Development Association Ltd.,1955,World Timbers (3 Vols.,Timber Development Association Ltd.

Titmuss, F.H.,1965,Commercial Timbers of the World,Technical Press Ltd., London, 3rd edition

WCMC. 1992. Conservation Status Listing - Trees and Timbers of the World. World Conservation Monitoring Center-Plants Programme, Cambridge, CB3 ODL, United Kingdom.

Wood, A.D.,1963,Plywoods of the World: Their Development, Manufacture and,Application,Johnston & Bacon Ltd. Edinburgh & London








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