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Blunting Effect
Comments
Common Names
Common Uses
Countries of Distribution
Cutting Resistance
Distribution Overview
Drying Defects
Ease of Drying
Environmental Profile
Family Name
Gluing
Grain
Heartwood Color
Kiln Drying Rate
Kiln Schedules
Light-Induced Color Change
Luster
Mortising
Moulding
Movement in Service
Nailing
Natural Durability
Natural Growth Defects
Numerical Data
Odor
Planing
Polishing
Product Sources
References
Regions of Distribution
Resistance to Impregnation
Response to Hand Tools
Sapwood Color
Scientific Name
Screwing
Staining
Steam Bending
Strength Properties
Substitutes
Texture
Toxicity
Trade Name
Tree Identification
Tree Size
Turning
Veneering Qualities

Scientific Name
Khaya ivorensis

Trade Name
African mahogany

Family Name
Meliaceae

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Common Names
Acajou bassam, Acajou blanc, Acajou d'Afrique, Acajou rouge, African mahogany, Akuk, Bandoro, Bariba, Benin mahogany, Biribi, Biribu, Bisselon, Bitehi, Diala iri, Diburi, Dubini, Dukuma, Dukuma fufu, Dukuma-dugura, Dukumakokre, Dupuin, Ekuie, Eri Kiree, Houngo, Humpe, Khaya, Khaya mahogany, Kortghot, Krala, Krubna, Lokobua, Lukuma, Munyama, Ngollo, Ngollon, Oduben, Odupod, Odupon, Ogurango, Ogurano, Ogwango, Orkogho, Red mahogany, Samanguila, Senegal mahogany, Tiamatiama, Zoele

Regions of Distribution
Africa

Countries of Distribution [VIEW MAP]
Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Togo, Uganda

Common Uses
Boat building (general), Boat building, Boat building: decking, Boat building: planking, Cabinetmaking, Carvings, Decorative veneer, Flooring, Furniture , Furniture, Heavy construction, Interior construction, Joinery, Light construction, Millwork, Musical instruments, Paneling , Paneling, Plywood, Sporting Goods, Tables, Tool handles, Turnery, Vehicle parts, Veneer, Veneer: decorative

Environmental Profile
Unknown because of lack of information
Data source is World Conservation Monitoring Center


Distribution Overview
Occurs in Angola, Cameroon, Congo, C�te d'Ivoire, Gabon, Ghana, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Nigeria and Zaire. In Ghana, this species occurs in many habitat types but seems to thrive best in moist and wet undisturbed evergreen forest. It is found scattered across almost the whole of Congo and is occasionally quite abundant.

Heartwood Color
Red
Yellow
Purple
Brown
Green/grey
Pink
Orange
Pale red to pink
Reddish brown
Dark brown
Red
Pale brown
Brown
Turn reddish brown upon exposure
Pink-Brown

The yellowish-brown color that is present in the paler shades of American mahoganies is very rare.

Sapwood Color
White
Yellow
White to yellow
Paler than heartwood
Well defined
Pinkish


Creamy-White or yellowish
Not always distinct from the heartwood. It is usually about 2 inches (5 cm) wide.

Grain
Figure
Distinct (figure)
Interlocked
Straight
Stripe (figure)
Very fine
Closed
Even
Growth rings (figure)
Rays (figure)
Rippled (figure)
Roey (figure)
Wavy

Interlocked
Distinct figure
Straight
Striped figure
Figure occurrence is very fine and distinct
Wavy
Roey figure
Rippled figure
Rays figure
Clear growth rings (figure)

Swirl and crotch figures are also common.

Texture
Medium
Coarse
Medium coarse to coarse
Coarse
Fine
Variable


Luster
Medium
Lustrous
High
Golden luster


Natural Growth Defects
Gum and mineral deposits
Brittleheart is often frequent and extensive


Natural Durability
Durable
Perishable
Non-durable
Moderately durable
Susceptible to attack from powder post (Lyctid & Bostrychid) beetles
Susceptible to attack from termites (Isoptera)
Pinworms (ambrosia beetles) often present in the standing tree
Pinworms (ambrosia beetles) may be present in the felled log
Susceptible to marine borer attack
Resistant to wood staining fungal attack
Non durable
Sapwood susceptible to attack by powder post beetles
Sapwood is vulnerable to attack by furniture beetles
Resistant to attack from powder post (Lyctid & Bostrychid) beetles
Pinworms (ambrosia beetles) are commonly present
Heartwood moderately resistant to decay


Resistant to termite attack in West Africa
Trees and logs are vulnerable to attack by forest longhorn and Buprestid beetles.

Odor
No specific smell or taste


Light-Induced Color Change
Darker


Toxicity
Dermatitic effects
Unspecified toxicity
Non-toxic


Kiln Schedules
Drying (speed) is fast
Kiln Drying Rate (in days) is fairly rapid


Drying Defects
Splitting
Distortion
Slight twist/warp
Slight end splitting
Slight surface checking
No surface checking
No end splitting
No twisting or warping
Moderate twist/warp


Radial - 2.5%
Shrinkage from Green to 12% MC
Strongly developed tension wood may cause excessive distortion during drying.
Tangential - 4.5%

Ease of Drying
Easy
Variable results.

The timber dries at a fairly rapid rate with little degrade, except when tension wood is present

Kiln Drying Rate
Fairly rapid (11-17 days for boards under 32 mm, to 31-51 days for boards greater than 63 mm)


Tree Identification
Bole/stem form is buttressed
Bole/stem form is straight
Bole/stem form is cylindrical


Tree Size
Bole length is 0-10 m
Bole length is 10-20 m
Tree height is 30-40 m


Develops straight, well-formed boles that measure about 40 to 80 feet (12 to 24 m) above strong buttresses that are up to 8 feet (2.5 m) high

Product Sources
Although the species makes up most of the African mahogany on the international market, it is usually sold in a mixture with other Khaya species including K. anthotheca , K. grandifoliola , and K. senegalensis . Origin of consignment can sometimes help identify specific Khaya species. This may be valuable since differences in some properties can be appreciable. Supplies in the lumber form are quite abundant, and can be found in a wide range of sizes at moderate prices. They are also available in plywood form from many lumber suppliers. African mahogany is frequently used to replace American mahogany because it is cheaper and more abundant, and can also be used for the same applications.

Substitutes
Crabwood (Carapa guianensis) is similar in appearance and is nearly as tough. Sapele (Entandrophragma cylindricum) has superiod strength properties. African canarium (Canarium schweinfurthii) is extremely similar in appearance once it is stained.

Comments
General finishing qualities are rated as good

Some logs may have brittleheart which can cause thundershakes, or cross-breaks, or heart-breaks. The defect is more common in figured logs.

Tension Wood - Abnormal wood tissue in the form of tension wood and brittleheart is sometimes present.

Blunting Effect
Blunting effect on machining is slight
Blunting effect on machining is moderate
Moderate effect
Blunting effect on sawing dry wood is moderate


Cutting Resistance
Easy to saw
Cutting Resistance with dry wood is easy
Cutting Resistance with dry wood is difficult

Cross-Cutting and narrow bandsawing are satisfactory

Gluing
Easy to glue
Satisfactory gluing properties
Moderate gluing properties


Mortising
Difficult to mortise


Moulding
Difficult to mould

Square block is reported to cause the most tearing and French head is not recommended for woolly stock.

Movement in Service
Small
Shows only small movement after manufacture
Retains shape well after seasoning


Nailing
Easy to nail
Satisfactory nailing properties
Possible if prebored
Holds nails well

Non-Ferrous or coated fastenings have been recommended to prevent dark stains on the wood since it reacts with iron under damp conditions.

Planing
Poor to Very Poor Results


Machining properties are affected by interlocked grain and by the woolly nature of the stock being worked. A reduced cutting angle of 20 degrees has been recommended in planing to prevent grain from tearing.

Resistance to Impregnation
Heartwood is highly resistant
Sapwood is moderately resistant


Response to Hand Tools
Fairly Difficult to Difficult to Work
Easy to machine
Variable qualities
Moderate working qualities
Difficult to machine

Heavily interlocked material is difficult to surface without tearing

Screwing
Easy to screw
Screwing yields good results
Possible if prebored


Turning
Turning and other woodworking operations such as mortising, boring, and sanding are all satisfactory, except in woolly material

Veneering Qualities
No drying degrade. Dries flat without splitting
Easy to cut


Steam Bending
Very poor

The wood is not recommended for steam bending applications since it buckles severely. A supporting strap is reported to give no advantage.

Polishing
Very Good to Excellent Results
Fair to Good Results
Satisfactory results
Good results


Staining
Finish is generally satisfactory
Finish is generally good
Good staining properties


Strength Properties
Density (dry weight) = 31-37 lbs/cu. ft.
Max. crushing strength = medium
Bending strength (MOR) = low
Hardness (side grain) = soft
Modulus of Elasticity (stiffness) = very low
Bending strength (MOR) = medium
Shearing strength (parallel to grain) = low
Shrinkage, Radial = small
Shrinkage, Tangential = small
Shrinkage, Tangential = very small
Modulus of Elasticity (stiffness) = low
Shrinkage, Volumetric = small
Hardness (side grain) = very soft
Shrinkage, Volumetric = moderate
Shrinkage, Radial = very small
Shrinkage, Radial = moderate
Density (dry weight) = 23-30 lbs/cu. ft.
Toughness-Hammer drop (Impact Strength) = very low
Shrinkage, Tangential = moderate
Shrinkage, Tangential = fairly large
Work to Maximum Load = very low
Toughness-Hammer drop (Impact Strength) = low
Shrinkage, Volumetric = fairly large
Shearing strength (parallel to grain) = very low
Shearing strength (parallel to grain) = medium
Max. crushing strength = low
Density (dry weight) = 38-45 lbs/cu. ft.
Shrinkage, Volumetric = large
Modulus of Elasticity (stiffness) = medium
Density = high
Crushing strength = medium


Moderate properties in hardness and weight
Strength properties of K. ivorensis are halfway between those of Obeche (Triplochiton scleroxylon ) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica ).

Numerical Data
ItemGreenDryEnglish
Bending Strength746411257psi
Density32lbs/ft3
Hardness826lbs
Impact Strength2521inches
Maximum Crushing Strength37866384psi
Shearing Strength1546psi
Stiffness116913861000 psi
Work to Maximum Load67inch-lbs/in3
Specific Gravity0.4
Weight3131lbs/ft3
Radial Shrinkage3%
Tangential Shrinkage5%
Volumetric Shrinkage10%
ItemGreenDryMetric
Bending Strength524791kg/cm2
Density512kg/m3
Hardness374kg
Impact Strength6353cm
Maximum Crushing Strength266448kg/cm2
Shearing Strength108kg/cm2
Stiffness82971000 kg/cm2
Work to Maximum Load0.420.49cm-kg/cm3
Specific Gravity0.4
Weight496496kg/m3
Radial Shrinkage3%
Tangential Shrinkage5%

References
Banks, C.H., Schoeman, J.P., Otto, K.P.,1977,The Mechanical Properties of Timbers with particular reference to South,Africa,South African Forestry Research Institute Bulletin,(Ed.,Schoeman, J.P. 1973 & Otto K.P. 1976,No.48

Banks, C.H.,1954,The Mechanical Properties of Timbers with Particular Reference to those,grown in the Union of South Africa,Journal of the South African Forestry Association,No. 24 pp.44-65,[South,African Forestry Journal]

Banks, C.H.,1970,The Durability of South African Wood and Wood Base Building Materials,South African Forestry Journal,No.75

Bois et Forets des Tropiques,1956,Moabi (Baillonella toxisperma,Bois et Forets des Tropiques,no.45, pp27-36

Bois et Forets des Tropiques,1979,Acajou D'Afrique (Khaya spp.,Bois et Forets des Tropiques,183,pp33-48

Bolza, E., Keating, W.G.,1972,African Timbers - the Properties, Uses and Characteristics of 700 Species,C.S.I.R.O. Div. of Building Research

Bolza, E.,1976,Timber and Health,Div. Building Res. C.S.I.R.O. Australia

Boone, R.S., C.J. Kozlik, P.J. Bois, E.M. Wengert. 1988. Dry Kiln Schedules for Commercial Hardwoods - Temperate and Tropical. USDA, Forest Service, General Technical Report FPL-GTR-57, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin.

Brown, W.H.,1969,Properties and uses of Tropical hardwoods in the United Kingdom. Part 1,Nonstructural properties and uses.,Conference on Tropical hardwoods SC-5/TN-5, Syracuse University

Brown, W.H.,1978,Timbers of the World No.1 Africa,TRADA, Red Booklet Series

Chudnoff, M.,1984,Tropical Timbers of the World,U.S.A. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products,Laboratory, Madison.

Clifford, N.,1953,Commercial Hardwoods - Their Characteristics Identification and,Utilization,Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons Ltd. London

Cox, H.A.,1939,A Handbook of Empire Timbers,Forest Products Research Laboratory, Princes Risborough

Desch, H.E.,1951,Manual of Commercial Timbers,The Author Crockham Hill, Kent,Vol.1

Edlin, H. 1969. What Wood is That? - A Manual of Wood Identification. A Studio Book, The Viking Press, New York.

Edlin, H.L.,1969,What wood is that? A Manual of Wood Identification,Jarrold and Sons Ltd. Norwich

Erfurth, T., Rusche, H.,1976,The Marketing of Tropical Wood A. Wood Species from African Moist Forests,F.A.O. Forestry Department

Farmer, R.H.,1972,Handbook of Hardwoods,HMSO

Forest Products Research Laboratory, U.K.,1945,A Handbook of Empire Timbers,Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Forest Products Research

Forest Products Research Laboratory, U.K.,1967,The Steam Bending Properties of various timbers,Forest Products Research Laboratory, Princes Risborough, Leaflet,No.45

Forest Products Research Laboratory, U.K.,1969,The Movement of Timbers,Forest Products Research Laboratory, Princes Risborough Technical Note,No.38

Forests Products Research Laboratory, U.K.,1956,A Handbook of Hardwoods,Forest Products Research Laboratory, Princes Risborough, Department of,Science and Industrial Research, Building Research Establishment

France - C.T.F.T.,1966,Bois Tropicaux,C.T.F.T. Publ.,12

France - C.T.F.T.,1973,Investigations and Tests carried out on Tropical Timber by several,Research Laboratories,CTFT

France - C.T.F.T.,Recuil de Fiches Techniques,C.T.F.T.

France - Comite Nacional des Bois Coloniaux,1931,Etude Physique et Mecanique des Bois Coloniaux,Assoc. Colonies-Sciences & Comite National des Bios Coloniaux, Paris,,France

Ghana - Timber Marketing Board,1969,Ghana Hardwoods,Timber Marketing Board

Gutierrez Oliva, A., Plaza Pulgar, F.,1967,Caracteristicas fisico-mecanicas de las maderas Espanolas. (Physical and,mechanical properties of Spanish timbers.,Min.Agric./Dir.Gen Montes/Instituto Forestral de Investigaciones,y,Experiencias, Madrid pp102

Harrar, E.S.,1942,Some Physical Properties of Modern Cabinet Woods 3. Directional and Volume,Shrinkage,Tropical Woods,9(71, pp26-32

Hedin, L.,1930,Commercial Mahoganies of French Cameroons,Tropical Woods,3(21,pp1-5

Hedin, L.,1930,Etude sur la Foret et les Bois du Cameroun,Haut-Commissaire de la Cameroun

HMSO, 1981. Handbook of Hardwoods, 2nd Edition. Revised by R.H. Farmer. Department of the Environment, Building Research Establishment, Princes Risborough Laboratory, Princes Risborough, Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire.

Howard, A.L.,1948,A Manual of Timbers of the World.,Macmillan & Co. Ltd. London 3rd ed.

Hughes, J.F.,1971,The Principal Timber Trees of Cameroon,Unpublished data

I.U.F.R.O.,1973,Veneer Species of the World,Assembled at F.P.L. Madison on behalf of I.U.F.R.O. Working Party on,Slicing and Veneer Cutting

Irvine, F.R.,1961,Woody Plants of Ghana,O.U.P. London

ITTO. 1986. Tropical Timber Atlas, Volume 1- Africa. International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) and Centre Technique Forestier Tropical (CTFT, 45bis, Avenue de la Belle Gabrielle, Nogent-sur-Marne Cedex, France.

Jay, B.A.,1968,Timbers of West Africa,TRADA, Red Booklet Series

Keay, R.W.J. 1989. Trees of Nigeria. Revised Version of Nigerian Trees. Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Keay, R.W.J.,1964,Nigerian Trees Vol.2,Nigeria Federal Department of Forest Research, Ibadan

Kennedy, J.D.,1936,Forest Flora of Southern Nigeria,Government Printer Lagos

Kinloch, D., Miller, W.A.,1949,Gold Coast Timbers,Govt. Printer Gold Coast

Kline, M. 1981. Khaya spp. - African mahogany. In A Guide to Useful Woods of the World. Flynn Jr., J.H., Editor. King Philip Publishing Co., Portland, Maine. Page 201-202.

Kloot, N.H., Bolza, E.,1961,Properties of Timbers Imported into Australia,C.S.I.R.O. Forest Products Division Technological Paper,No.12

Kribbs, D.A. 1959. Commercial Foreign Woods on the American Market. Buckhout Lab., Dept. of Botany, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania.

Kryn, J.M., Forbes, E.W.,1959,The Woods of Liberia,U.S.A. Department of Agriculture,Forest Products Laboratory, Madison,,Report No. 2159

Kukachka, B.F.,1970,Properties of Imported Tropical Woods,Forest Research Paper FPL 125

Kunkel, G.,1965,The Trees of Liberia,German Forestry Mission to Liberia Report,No.3

Lamb, G.N.,1948,The Mahogany Book (7th Ed.,Mahogany Association Inc., Chicago.

Lavers, G.M. 1967. The Strength Properties of Timbers. Ministry of Technology, Forest Products Research, Bulletin No. 50. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London.

Lavers, G.M.,1983,The Strength Properties of Timber (3rd ed. revised Moore G.L.,Forest Products Research Laboratory, Princes Risborough, Building Research,Establishment Report (formerly Bulletin No.50)

Lincoln, W.A. 1986. World Woods in Color. Linden Publishing Co. Inc., Fresno, California.

Normand, D., Sallenave, P.,1958,Characteristiques et Proprietes des Acajous,Bois et Forets des Tropiques,59,pp43-52

Rendle, B.J.,1938,Commercial Mahoganies and Allied Timbers,Forest Products Research Laboratory, London Bulletin,No 18

Rendle, B.J.,1956,Variation in the quality of African mahogany,Wood,21(9, pp349-54

Sallenave, P.,1955,Proprietes Phyiques et Mecaniques des Bois Tropicaux de l'Union Francaise,C.T.F.T

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U.S.D.A. Forest Service,1974,Wood Handbook,U.S.A. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service Handbook,72

Vorreiter, L.,1949,Holztechnologisches Handbuch,Verlag Georg Fromme & Co. Ltd.,Vol 1.

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Wood, B., Calnan, D.,1976,Toxic Woods,British Journal of Dermat 94 Suppl. 13








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