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Boring
Comments
Common Names
Common Uses
Countries of Distribution
Cutting Resistance
Distribution Overview
Drying Defects
Ease of Drying
Environmental Profile
Family Name
Grain
Heartwood Color
Kiln Schedules
Luster
Movement in Service
Nailing
Natural Durability
Numerical Data
Odor
Planing
Polishing
References
Regions of Distribution
Resistance to Impregnation
Response to Hand Tools
Sanding
Sapwood Color
Scientific Name
Staining
Steam Bending
Strength Properties
Texture
Trade Name
Tree Identification
Tree Size
Turning
Veneering Qualities

Scientific Name
Lonchocarpus castilloi

Trade Name
Black cabbage-bark

Family Name
Leguminosae

Wood Image 1

Wood Image 1

Wood Image 1

Common Names
Balche, Barbasco, Black cabbage bark, Black cabbage-bark, Cabbage bark, Chaperno, Guaimaro, Haiari, Imbira de sapo, Macaratu, Machiche, Manchich, Marajagua, Sindajapl, Sindjaple, Timbo

Regions of Distribution
Central America, Latin America

Countries of Distribution [VIEW MAP]
Belize, Brazil, Columbia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela

Common Uses
Axles, Bent Parts, Boat building (general), Bridge construction, Building construction, Building materials, Cabin construction, Cabinetmaking, Chairs, Chests, Construction, Crossties, Desks, Dining-room furniture, Domestic flooring, Drawer sides, Factory construction, Factory flooring, Fine furniture, Flooring, Furniture , Furniture components, Furniture squares or stock, Hatracks, Heavy construction, Kitchen cabinets, Light construction, Living-room suites, Mine timbers, Office furniture, Parquet flooring, Poles, Radio - stereo - TV cabinets, Railroad ties, Rustic furniture, Stools, Sub-flooring, Tool handles, Turnery, Utility furniture, Vehicle parts, Wardrobes, Wheel spokes, Wheels

Environmental Profile
The environmental profile of this species within its natural habitat has not been officially assessed

Distribution Overview
Tropical America, Mexico in particular. It grows on open hillsides and dry plains at lowland or medium elevations, but may also be locally found in high forests and marsh forests on alluvial flats in Surinam.

Heartwood Color
Brown
Yellow
Orange
Reddish brown
Dark brown

The heartwood is yellowish brown to dark reddish brown in color, usually with stripes of a lighter color. Unfinished wood is rather dull

Sapwood Color
Brown
Yellow
White to yellow
Pinkish
Paler than heartwood
Different than heartwood
Clearly differentiated from the heartwood

The thick and clearly distinct sapwood is yellowish brown in color, and has been described as unattractive in appearance

Grain
Figure
Interlocked
Even
Rippled (figure)
Rays (figure)
Growth rings (figure)
Distinct (figure)
Variable (figure)
Straight
Irregular

Interlocked
Rippled figure
Rays figure
Straight
Irregular
Irregular color
Distinct figure
Clear growth rings (figure)


Texture
Coarse
Fine to medium
Coarse


Luster
Slightly lustrous

The luster is low to medium

Natural Durability
Perishable
Non-durable
Very durable
Moderately resistant to marine borer attack
Resistant to attack from termites (Isoptera)
Resistant to attack from powder post (Lyctid & Bostrychid) beetles
Resistant to attack from pinworms (ambrosia beetles)

Heartwood durability varies considerably by species, but L. castilloi is rated as very resistant to fungus and insect attack

Odor
No specific smell or taste


Kiln Schedules
Kiln Schedule G (4/4); United Kingdom
8 - B3 (4/4); T5 - B1 (8/4) US


Drying Defects
Splitting
Slight twist/warp

Distortion and shrinkage are minimal if the material is dried slowly

Ease of Drying
Moderately Difficult to Difficult
Easy
Moderate

The rate varies from slow to rapid, and depends upon the species

Tree Identification
Bole/stem form is unknown
Bole/stem form is not buttressed


Tree Size
Bark width is 15-20 mm
Bole length is 10-20 m
Tree height is 10-20 m
Tree height is 20-30 m


Comments
General finishing qualities are rated as good

Machiche is a potential substitute for applications where a dark-reddish wood, such as Mahogany is required

Boring
Moderately easy


Cutting Resistance
Easy to saw
Cutting Resistance with dry wood is difficult


Movement in Service
The timber is reported have moderate dimensional stability, and exhibits medium movement after manufacture.

Nailing
Pre-boring recommended
Difficult to nail


Planing
Planes to a satisfactory finish
Ease of planing is moderate

Most machining operations, including planing, turning, mortising, boring, and moulding are fairly easy, although the timber is described as hard. The material responds well to sharp cutters to produce clean surfaces without too much difficulty

Resistance to Impregnation
Sapwood is resistant

Most species in the genus are rather difficult to treat with wood preservatives

Response to Hand Tools
Difficult to machine


Sanding
Good sanding properties


Turning
Turns with moderate ease
Good results
Easy to turn


Veneering Qualities
Suitable for peeling
Veneers easily
Veneers moderately easy


Steam Bending
Moderate


Polishing
Fair to Good Results
Good results


Staining
The wood takes finishes well, except polyurethane. Finishing is reported to highlight irregularities in the grain to make the normally dull wood rather attractive

Strength Properties
Density (dry weight) = 53 - 60 lbs/cu. ft.
Modulus of Elasticity (stiffness) = high
Max. crushing strength = very high
Bending strength (MOR) = very high
Toughness (total work) = high
Shrinkage, Tangential = moderate
Shrinkage, Radial = moderate
Shearing strength (parallel to grain) = very high
Shearing strength (parallel to grain) = high
Max. crushing strength = high
Hardness (side grain) = very hard
Bending strength (MOR) = high


Numerical Data
ItemGreenDryEnglish
Bending Strength1856725938psi
Density56lbs/ft3
Hardness2805lbs
Impact Strength40inches
Maximum Crushing Strength968013101psi
Shearing Strength2920psi
Stiffness229825721000 psi
Toughness335inch-lbs
Work to Maximum Load1519inch-lbs/in3
Specific Gravity0.63
Weight5755lbs/ft3
Radial Shrinkage4%
Tangential Shrinkage7%
Volumetric Shrinkage13%
ItemGreenDryMetric
Bending Strength13051823kg/cm2
Density897kg/m3
Hardness1272kg
Impact Strength101cm
Maximum Crushing Strength680921kg/cm2
Shearing Strength205kg/cm2
Stiffness1611801000 kg/cm2
Toughness385cm-kg
Work to Maximum Load1.051.33cm-kg/cm3
Specific Gravity0.63
Weight913881kg/m3
Radial Shrinkage4%
Tangential Shrinkage7%

References
Belize,1946,42 Secondary Hardwood Timbers of British Honduras,British Honduras Forest Department Bulletin,No.1

Boone, R.S., C.J. Kozlik, P.J. Bois, E.M. Wengert. 1988. Dry Kiln Schedules for Commercial Hardwoods -Temperate and Tropical. USDA, Forest Service, General Technical Report FPL-GTR-57, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin.

Chudnoff, M.,1984,Tropical Timbers of the World,U.S.A. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products,Laboratory, Madison.

Clifford, N.,1953,Commercial Hardwoods - Their Characteristics Identification and,Utilization,Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons Ltd. London

Lavers, G. M. 1966. The Strength Properties of Timbers. Forest Products Research Bulletin, No. 50. Ministry of Technology, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London.

Lavers, G.M.,1983,The Strength Properties of Timber (3rd ed. revised Moore G.L.,Forest Products Research Laboratory, Princes Risborough, Building Research,Establishment Report (formerly Bulletin No.50)

Perpetua Hardwoods. Sea Star Trading Co. - Purveyors of Fine Wood. Newport, Oregon. Personal Communication, 1993.

Takahashi, A.,1975,Compilation of data on the Mechanical Properties of Foreign Woods (Part 2,Central and South America,Shimane University, Japan, Research Report on Foreign Wood No.4

WARP. 1995. Getting to Know LKS:Machiche - Lonchocarpus castilloii. Published Results of Test Conducted Students at the Woodworking Centre of Ontario, Conestoga College Under the Supervision of Dennis Harlock and John Buss. Understory, Volume 5, Number 1, Fall/Winter, 1995. Page 9.








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