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Blunting Effect
Boring
Carving
Comments
Common Names
Common Uses
Countries of Distribution
Cutting Resistance
Distribution Overview
Drying Defects
Ease of Drying
Environmental Profile
Family Name
Gluing
Grain
Heartwood Color
Kiln Schedules
Light-Induced Color Change
Luster
Mortising
Moulding
Movement in Service
Nailing
Natural Durability
Numerical Data
Odor
Painting
Planing
Polishing
Product Sources
References
Regions of Distribution
Resistance to Impregnation
Resistance to Splitting
Response to Hand Tools
Routing & Recessing
Sanding
Sapwood Color
Scientific Name
Screwing
Silica Content
Steam Bending
Strength Properties
Synonyms
Texture
Toxicity
Trade Name
Tree Identification
Tree Size
Turning
Varnishing

Scientific Name
Manilkara bidentata

Trade Name
Bulletwood

Family Name
Sapotaceae

Synonyms
Manilkara balata, Manilkara dariensis, Manilkara huberi, Manilkara nitida, Manilkara surinamensis, Mimusops balata, Mimusops bidentata, Mimusops globosa, Mimusops nitida, Mimusops riedeleana, Mimusops surinamensis


Wood Image 1

Common Names
Abeille, Acana, Almiqui, Aus, Ausabo, Ausubo, Balata, Balata burue, Balata franc, Balata gomme, Balata rouge, Beefwood, Boeti, Bolletri, Bolletrie, Borowe, Botrie, Bulletwood, Bully, Bully tree, Chicozapota, Chicozapote, Horseflesh, Iriar, Kobero, Macaranduba, Maparajuba, Massarandu, Massaranduba, Miurajuba, Nispero, Paardevleeshout, Pamashto, Paraju, Purgio, Purgo, Purue, Quinilla, Quinilla colorada, Red balata, Red lancewood, Sapotille, South American mahogany

Regions of Distribution
Central America, Latin America, North America, Oceania and S.E. Asia

Countries of Distribution [VIEW MAP]
Brazil, Columbia, Dominican Republic, French Guiana, Guadelope [France], Guyana, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Puerto Rico [US], Puerto Rico, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela

Common Uses
Bent Parts, Billiard-cue butts, Boat building (general), Boat building: framing, Bridge beams, Bridge construction, Bridge joists, Building construction, Building materials, Cabin construction, Cabinetmaking, Chairs, Charcoal, Chests, Construction, Decks, Desks, Dining-room furniture, Domestic flooring, Drawer sides, Exterior trim & siding, Exterior uses, Factory construction, Fine furniture, Fishing rods, Flooring, Flooring: industrial heavy traffic, Furniture , Furniture components, Furniture squares or stock, Furniture, Handles, Hatracks, Heavy construction, Joinery, Kitchen cabinets, Light construction, Living-room suites, Marine construction, Matches, Mathematical instruments, Mine timbers, Musical instruments , Musical instruments, Musical instruments: percussion, Musical instruments: strings, Naval architecture, Office furniture, Parquet flooring, Piling, Posts, Radio - stereo - TV cabinets, Railroad ties, Rustic furniture, Shade rollers, Shafts/Handles, Shingles, Skis, Sporting Goods, Structural work, Textile equipment, Tool handles, Turnery, Vehicle parts, Veneer: decorative, Violin bows, Wheel spokes

Environmental Profile
Vulnerable
Widespread, abundant, and globally secure
May be rare in parts of its range, especially at the periphery
Data source is Nature Conservancy


Distribution Overview
Widely distributed throughout the West Indies, Central America, and northern South America; occurs in many forest types and not exacting as to soil or topography.� Locally frequent.

Heartwood Color
Yellow
Brown
Red
Reddish brown
Red
Dark brown
Pale red to pink
Purple
Light red
Dull plum red
Brown


Sapwood Color
Brown
Yellow
White
Pink
White to yellow
White to pale brown
Pinkish
Color not distinct from heartwood


Grain
Straight
Interlocked
Wavy
Figure
Distinct (figure)
Closed
Even
Weak (figure)

Straight
Interlocked
Wavy
Distinct figure
Weak figure
Occasionally interlocked, but not always
Generally straight, but not always


Texture
Fine
Even or uniform
Uniform
Coarse
Medium
Fine
Uniform
Medium
Fine to medium


Luster
Low
Slightly lustrous
Dull
Lustrous
Low to Medium


Natural Durability
Durable
Non-resistant to powder post beetles
Very durable
Susceptible to marine borer attack
Resistant to attack from termites (Isoptera)
Moderately resistant to termite (Isoptera) attack
Durable
Resistant to wood staining fungal attack
Weathering properties are very poor
Susceptible to marine borer attack
Susceptible to attack from powder post (Lyctid & Bostrychid) beetles
Resistant to attack from powder post (Lyctid & Bostrychid) beetles
Pinworms (ambrosia beetles) often present in the standing tree
Pinworms (ambrosia beetles) may be present in the felled log
Moderately resistant to attack by termites
Highly resistant to decay fungi, and subterranean termites


Odor
No specific smell or taste


Silica Content
Siliceous


Light-Induced Color Change
Darker


Toxicity
Sawdust can cause irritation in some individuals
Non-toxic
Dermatitic effects


Kiln Schedules
Dry at a slow speed
Drying (speed) is fast
T1 - B1 (4/4) US
Dry at a moderate speed


Drying Defects
Checking
Distortion
Severe twisting/warping
Severe surface checking
Slight cupping
Slight spring/bow
Moderate twist/warp
Slight twist/warp
Slight surface checking
No twisting or warping
No surface checking
No end splitting
No cupping, generally
Moderate surface checking
Moderate end spitting


Ease of Drying
Slowly
Reconditioning Treatement
Little degrade
Difficult
Difficult to air-season
Controlled drying conditions will prevent rapid drying and yield best results.


Tree Identification
Bole/stem form is buttressed
Bole/stem form is not buttressed
Bole/stem form is straight


Tree Size
Tree height is 30-40 m


Trees are usually swollen at the base,

Product Sources
The ITTO reports that the species is an important source of timber. It is usually exported at a low rate, and is also well known for its yield of balata or gutta-percha which is collected from tapped trees.

Small quantities of Bulletwood are exported because the tree is valued for its latex. Supplies of lumber are limited, and the material is usually available at high prices from the larger importers in the United States.

Comments
General finishing qualities are rated as good

Blunting Effect
High to severe
Medium effect


Boring
Fair to good results
Fairly difficult to very difficult
Easy


Carving
Fair to Good Results
Fairly Difficult to Very Difficult


Cutting Resistance
Fairly Difficult to Very Difficult to saw
Cutting Resistance with green wood is easy
Cutting Resistance with dry wood is easy
Moderately easy despite high density


Gluing
Difficult to glue
Use special attention for best results


Mortising
Fair to Good Results
Fairly Difficult to Very Difficult
Finishes well
Easy to mortise


Moulding
Fair to Good Results
Fairly Difficult to Very Difficult
Easy to mould
Good finishing results


Movement in Service
Excellent Stability - Small Movement
Medium


Nailing
Possible if prebored
Difficult to nail
Holds nails well


Planing
Fair to Good Results
Fairly Difficult to Very Difficult
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Easy to plane
Planes well, to a good finish
Satisfactory planing properties
Difficult to plane


Resistance to Impregnation
Permeable sapwood
Resistant heartwood
Resistant sapwood
Heartwood is extremely resistant
Heartwood is resistant
Extremely resistant


Resistance to Splitting
Satisfactory


Response to Hand Tools
Responds Readily
Easy to Work
Easy to machine
Moderate working qualities
Difficult to machine
Good response


Routing & Recessing
Fair to Good Results
Fairly Difficult to Very Difficult


Sanding
Good sanding finish
Excellent sanding properties
Easy to sand


Screwing
Screwing yields good results


Turning
Fair to Good Results
Fairly Difficult to Very Difficult
Poor results
Easy to turn
Difficult to turn


Steam Bending
Unsuitable
Exudation
Very good


Painting
Satisfactory results


Polishing
Fair to Good Results
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Satisfactory results
Good results


Varnishing
Good results


Strength Properties
Bending strength (MOR) = very high
Modulus of Elasticity (stiffness) = very high
Density (dry weight) = 61-67 lbs/cu. ft.
Shrinkage, Radial = large
Density (dry weight) = 67-75 lbs/cu. ft.
Bending strength (MOR) = medium
Shrinkage, Tangential = fairly large
Shearing strength (parallele to grain) = very high
Shearing strength (parallel to grain) = very high
Modulus of Elasticity (stiffness) = high
Shearing strength (parallel to grain) = high
Shrinkage, Tangential = large
Density (dry weight) = 53-60 lbs/cu. ft.
Work to Maximum Load = very low
Shrinkage, Tangential = moderate
Shrinkage, Radial = small
Max. crushing strength = low
Hardness = very high
Density (dry weight) = >75 lbs/cu. ft.
Compression strength (parallel to grain) = very high
Bending strength (MOR) = low

Max. crushing strength = medium
Max. crushing strength = high
Bulletwood is equal to or superior to Greenheart (Ocotea rodiaei ) in shock resistance, hardness, shear, and bending strength.

Numerical Data
ItemGreenDryEnglish
Bending Strength1698225609psi
Crushing Strength24303773.psi
Density60lbs/ft3
Hardness3070lbs
Maximum Crushing Strength849111619psi
Shearing Strength2798psi
Static Bending1089814729psi
Stiffness259531731000 psi
Toughness260inch-lbs
Work to Maximum Load1217inch-lbs/in3
Specific Gravity0.770.95
Weight6560lbs/ft3
Radial Shrinkage6%
Tangential Shrinkage9%
Volumetric Shrinkage17%
ItemGreenDryMetric
Bending Strength11931800kg/cm2
Crushing Strength170265.kg/cm2
Density961kg/m3
Hardness1392kg
Maximum Crushing Strength596816kg/cm2
Shearing Strength196kg/cm2
Static Bending7661035kg/cm2
Stiffness1822231000 kg/cm2
Toughness299cm-kg
Work to Maximum Load0.841.19cm-kg/cm3
Specific Gravity0.770.95
Weight1041961kg/m3
Radial Shrinkage6%
Tangential Shrinkage9%

References
Bena, P.,1960,Essences Forestieres de Guyane,Bureau Agricole et Forestier Guyanais Guyana

Berni, C.A., Bolza, E., Christensen, F.J.,1979,South American Timbers - The Characteristics, Properties and Uses of 190,Species,C.S.I.R.O Div. Building Research

Bois et Forets des Tropiques,1953,Balata rouge (Manilkara bidentata,Bois et Forets des Tropiques,No.28 pp35-8

Bolza, E.,1976,Timber and Health,Div. Building Res. C.S.I.R.O. Australia

Boone, R.S., C.J. Kozlik, P.J. Bois, E.M. Wengert. 1988. Dry Kiln Schedules for Commercial Hardwoods - Temperate and Tropical. USDA, Forest Service, General Technical Report FPL-GTR-57, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin.

Brooks, R.L., et al,1941,Durability tests on Untreated Timbers in Trinidad,Caribbean Forester,2(3,pp101-119

Brown, W.H.,1978,Timbers of the World, No. 2 South America,TRADA, Red Booklet Series

Brown, W.H.,1978,Timbers of the World, No. 9 Central America and the Caribbean,TRADA, Red Booklet Series

Caribbean Commission,1952,Information on properties of timbers gathered by questionnaire and,collated in the secretariat of the Caribbean Commission including some,related data from technical literature.,Caribbean Commission, Port of Spain, Trinidad Caribbean Timbers, their,Utilization and Trade within the area CTUTA/1/Doc.7 + App.1-18

Chichignoud, M., G. Deon, P. Detienne, B. Parant and P. Vantomme. 1990. Tropical Timber Atlas of Latin America. International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO, Centre Technique Forestier Tropical, Division of CIRAD, 45 bis, Avenue de la Belle Gabrielle, Nogent-sur-marne, CEDEX, France.

Chudnoff, M.,1984,Tropical Timbers of the World,U.S.A. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products,Laboratory, Madison.

Dickinson, F.E.,1949,Properties and Uses of Tropical Woods 1,Tropical Woods,13(95,pp1-140

Ducke, A.,1943,The Most Important Woods of the Amazon Valley,Tropical Woods,12(74,pp1-15

Edmondson, C.H.,1949,Reaction of Woods from S.America and Caribbean areas to Marine Borers in,Hawaiian Waters,Caribbean Foresters,10(1,PP37-41

Erfurth, T., Rusche, H.,1976,The Marketing of Tropical Wood B. Wood Species from S. American Tropical,Moist Forests,F.A.O. Forestry Department

Falla Ramirez, A.,1971,Resultados de los estudios Fisico-Mecanicos de 41 especies Maderables de,la,region Carare-Opon. (Results of studies of the physical and mechanical,properties of 41 timber species of the Carare-Opon region.,Inst. de Desarrollo de los Recursos Naturales Renovables. Div. For.,Pleagble Divulgativo, Inderena Colombia,pp6

Fanshawe, D.B.,1954,Forest Products of British Guiana Part 1 Principal Timbers,Forest Department British Guiana Forestry Bulletin (New Series 2nd,Edition,No.1

France - Comite Nacional des Bois Coloniaux,1931,Etude Physique et Mecanique des Bois Coloniaux,Assoc. Colonies-Sciences & Comite National des Bios Coloniaux, Paris,,France

Guna et al, S.R.D.,1945,Notes on British Guiana Timbers,The 'Daily Chronicle' Ltd. Printers,28PP

Hoheisel, H.,1968,Identification of some Colombian wood Sp. and their possible use on the,basis of physical and mechanical properties,Latin American Forest Research and Training Institute, Merida Venezuala

Howard, A.L.,1948,A Manual of Timbers of the World.,Macmillan & Co. Ltd. London 3rd ed.

Kline, M. 1979. Manilkara bidentata - Bulletwood. In A Guide to Useful Woods of the World. Flynn Jr., J.H., Editor. King Philip Publishing Co., Portland, Maine. 1994. Page 226-227.

Kribs, D.A.,1950,Commercial and Foreign Woods on the American Market (a manual to their,structure, identification, uses and distribution,U.S.A. Penn. State College, Tropical Woods Laboratory

Lamb, A.F.A., Wangaard, F.F.,1950,The Gluing Properties of certain Tropical American Woods,Yale Univ. School of Forestry Technical Report,4

Lang, W.G.,1954,Forest Utilization in Saint Lucia British West Indies,Caribbean Forester 15 pp120-3

Little, E.L., Wadsworth, F.H.,1964,Common Trees of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands,U.S.A. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook,No.249

Longwood, F.R.,1961,Puerto Rican Woods - Their Machining Seasoning and Related Characteristics,U.S.A. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook,No.205

Longwood, F.R.,1962,Commercial Timbers of the Caribbean,U.S.A. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook,No.207

Loureiro, A.A., Freitas da Silva, M.,1968,Catalogo das Madeiras da Amazonia (2 vols,Min. do Ultramar Belem Brasil

Martin-Lavigne, E.,1909,Recherches sur les Bois de la Guyane,Vigot Freres Paris

Polak, A.M.,1992,Major Timber Trees of Guyana A Field Guide,The Tropenbos Foundation Wageningen, The Netherlands

Record, S.J.,1939,American Woods of the Family Sapotaceae,Tropical Woods 8(59) pp21-51

Sallenave, P.,1955,Proprietes Phyiques et Mecaniques des Bois Tropicaux de l'Union Francaise,C.T.F.T

Surinam Forest Service,1952,Surinam Timber - A Summary with brief descriptions of the main timber,species of Surinam,Surinam Forest Service

T.R.A.D.A.,1982,Timbers for river and sea constructions,TRADA Wood Information Section 0, Sheet 6

Takahashi, A.,1975,Compilation of data on the Mechanical Properties of Foreign Woods (Part 2,Central and South America,Shimane University, Japan, Research Report on Foreign Wood No.4

Villamil, F.G.,1971,Maderas Colombianas,Proexpo Colombia

Vink, A.T.,1965,Surinam Timbers,Surinam Forest Service Paramaribo,3rd rev. ed.

Wangaard, F.F., Chudnoff, M.,1950,The Steam Bending Properties of Certain Tropical American Woods,Yale Univ. School of Forestry Technical Report No. 6

Wangaard, F.F., Muschler, A.F.,1952,Properties and Uses of Tropical Woods 3,Tropical Woods,14(98, pp1-190

Wangaard, F.F., W.L. Stern, and A.F. Muschler. 1952. Tropical Woods - Properties and Uses of Tropical Woods, Volume III, No. 98. School of Forestry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.

Wangaard, F.F., W.L. Stern, and S.L. Goodrich. 1955. Tropical Woods - Properties and Uses of Tropical Woods, Volume V, No. 103. School of Forestry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.

Wangaard, F.F.,1951,The Physical Properties of Tropical Woods,F.A.O. For. & For. Prod. Studies Series No.3 Tropical Woods and Ag.,Residues as sources of pulp,pp10-16

Wolcott, G.N.,1940,A List of the Woods arranged according to their resistance to the attack,of,the 'Polilla', the Dry-wood Termite of the West Indies, Cryptotermes,brevis Walker,Caribbean Forester,1(4,PP1-10

Wolcott, G.N.,1950,An Index to the Termite Resistance of Woods,Agricultural Experimental Station, University of Puerto Rico Bulletin,No.85

Wood, B., Calnan, D.,1976,Toxic Woods,British Journal of Dermat 94 Suppl. 13








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