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Blunting Effect
Boring
Carving
Comments
Common Names
Common Uses
Countries of Distribution
Cutting Resistance
Distribution Overview
Drying Defects
Ease of Drying
Environmental Profile
Family Name
Gluing
Grain
Heartwood Color
Kiln Drying Rate
Kiln Schedules
Luster
Mortising
Moulding
Movement in Service
Nailing
Natural Durability
Numerical Data
Odor
Planing
Polishing
Product Sources
References
Regions of Distribution
Resistance to Impregnation
Resistance to Splitting
Response to Hand Tools
Routing & Recessing
Sanding
Sapwood Color
Scientific Name
Staining
Steam Bending
Strength Properties
Texture
Toxicity
Trade Name
Tree Identification
Tree Size
Turning
Veneering Qualities

Scientific Name
Peltogyne venosa

Trade Name
Purpleheart

Family Name
Leguminosae

Wood Image 1

Wood Image 1

Common Names
Amarante, Amaranth, Amaratante, Barabu, Bois pourpre, Bois voilet, Daba, Dastan, Ellongrypho, Guaraburajado, Guarab�, Koroboreli, Koroborezi, Kuruburelli, Lastan, Malako, Maraka, Mor ado, Morado, Nazareno, Palo morado, Pau roxo, Pau violeta, Pelo morado, Purperhart, Purpleheart, Saka, Sakavalli, Sapater, Tananeo, Violet, Violet wood, Violetwood, Zapatero

Regions of Distribution
Central America, Latin America, Oceania and S.E. Asia

Countries of Distribution [VIEW MAP]
Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, French Guiana, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela

Common Uses
Agricultural implements, Bedroom suites, Billiard-cue butts, Boat building (general), Boat building: decking, Boat building: framing, Boat building: planking, Bobbins, Bridge beams, Bridge construction, Bridge joists, Building construction, Building materials, Cabin construction, Cabinetmaking, Canoes, Carvings, Chairs, Chemical containers, Chests, Concealed parts (Furniture), Construction, Decorative veneer, Desks, Dining-room furniture, Docks, Dockwork, Domestic flooring, Dowell pins, Dowells, Drawer sides, Factory construction, Figured veneer, Filter press plates, Fine furniture, Floor lamps, Flooring, Furniture , Furniture components, Furniture squares or stock, Furniture, Handles, Handles: general, Hatracks, Heavy construction, Joinery (external): ground contact, Joinery, Kitchen cabinets, Light construction, Living-room suites, Marine construction, Marquetry, Mathematical instruments, Millwork, Mine timbers, Moldings, Office furniture, Paneling, Piling, Railroad ties, Shade rollers, Skis, Sporting Goods, Tables, Tool handles, Turnery, Vats, Vehicle parts, Walking sticks, Wheel spokes

Environmental Profile
Vulnerable
Status within its natural growth range has not been officially assessed


Distribution Overview
Timber produced by about 20 species including, P. venosa , which grow in Central America and tropical South America, from Mexico to southern Brazil are collectively referred to by the trade name Purpleheart. They are most common in the Amazon basin, and are also found in Colombia, Guyana, Surinam, and Venezuela.

Heartwood Color
Brown
Black
Red
Purple
Dark brown
Brown

The heartwood is initially dull brown, but it rapidly changes to a bright, vibrant purple. Prolonged exposure darkens the wood to a dark-purplish brown or dark brown, but the original color is easily restored by recutting to expose new wood. Color variation between boards is moderate to high. Presence of minerals in some boards may cause uneven coloration and steaming is reported to affect the color. Peltogyne timbers are reported to vary widely in color between, and probably within species

Sapwood Color
White
Brown
Green/Grey
Yellow
Well defined
White to yellow
Pinkish
Off-white
Creamy white
Clearly differentiated from the heartwood

The color has also been described as pinkish cinnamon with light brown streaks, and is usually about 2 to 4 inches (5 to 10 cm) wide

Grain
Figure
Straight
Stripe (figure)
Interlocked
Even
Closed
Distinct (figure)
Other (figure)
Wavy

Straight
Striped figure
Interlocked
Wavy
Other figure
Generally straight, but not always
Distinct figure

The grain is typically straight, sometimes wavy, roey, or irregular.

Texture
Fine
Medium
Fine
Fine to medium


Luster
Medium
Lustrous
Slightly lustrous
Pronounced
Medium to high


Natural Durability
Durable
Very durable
Susceptible to insect attack
Non-resistant to powder post beetles
Moderately durable
Resistant to marine borers
Resistant to powder post beetles
Very durable
Resistant to attack from termites (Isoptera)
Durable
Very resistant to dry-wood termite attack
Slightly resistant to attack by marine borers
Resistant to attack from powder post (Lyctid & Bostrychid) beetles
Moderately resistant to termite (Isoptera) attack
Highly resistant to attack by decay fungi

The wood is resistant to chemicals such as acids.

Odor
Has an odor
No specific smell or taste


Toxicity
Some toxic effects


Kiln Schedules
UK=E US=T6D2/T3D1 Fr=5
Dry at a slow speed
Drying (speed) is fast


Drying Defects
Discoloration
Slight twist/warp
Slight end splitting
Slight surface checking
No cupping, generally
Moderate spring/bow
Moderate end spitting


Ease of Drying
Fairly Easy
Slowly
Reconditioning Treatement
Moderate
Difficult
Variable results.

Difficulty in air-drying varies from easy to moderately difficult, and drying rate range from slow to fairly rapid. Moisture extraction from center of thicker stock is rather difficult

Kiln Drying Rate
Naturally dries slowly


Tree Identification
Bole/stem form is buttressed
Bole/stem form is straight
Bole/stem form is cylindrical


Tree Size
Bole length is 10-20 m
Sapwood width is 0-5 cm
Tree height is 20-30 m
Tree height is 30-40 m
Trunk diameter is 100-150 cm
Trunk diameter is 150-200 cm


Mature Purpleheart trees are usually tall and attain a height of about 100 to 150 feet (30 to 45 m), and a diameter of up to 48 inches (120 cm), usually between 18 and 36 inches (45 and 90 cm).

Product Sources
The ITTO reports that timber production from this species is regular. The material is exported at a low but regular rate.

Supplies are ample, but the wood is fairly expensive. It costs more than mahogany but less than teak. Although it has not found wide demand, Purpleheart is available on the US market in both the lumber and veneer forms.

Comments
General finishing qualities are rated as good

Treatment against ultra-violet fading has been suggested since the wood turns gray-brown upon exposure to sunlight. A treatment with Armorall, the car finish product, under lacquer is reported to maintain the original color well

Working the wood with dull cutting tools may cause gum exudation

Blunting Effect
Blunting effect on machining is severe
Blunting is rated as moderate to severe

Cutting tools may be gummed up if they are not very sharp

Boring
Fair to good results
Fairly easy to very easy
Easy


Carving
Fair to Good Results
Fairly Easy to Very Easy


Cutting Resistance
Easy to saw
Moderate to fairly difficult to saw
Cutting Resistance with green wood is easy
Cutting Resistance with dry wood is easy

Tools usually require frequent sharpening. Slow feed rates and specially tipped cutters are suggested.

Gluing
Easy to glue


Mortising
Fair to Good Results
Fairly Easy to Very Easy


Moulding
Fair to Good Results
Fairly Easy to Very Easy


Movement in Service
Excellent Stability - Small Movement
Fair to Good Stability - Medium Movement
Small
Medium
Dimensionally stable


Nailing
Fair to Good Results
Very Good to Excellent Results
Fairly Difficult to Very Difficult
Possible if prebored
Pre-boring recommended
Holds nails well


Planing
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Fair to Good Results
Fairly Difficult to Very Difficult
Easy to plane
Respond poorly to ordinary tools
Moderately difficult to work in most machining operations
Ease of planing is moderate

Working with dull cutters may cause the wood to heat up and exude resin which can considerably increase machining difficulty. Slower feed rates and specially tipped cutters, or sharp, high-speed steel knives are suggested. A reduced cutting angle of 15 degrees has also been recommended, especially when planing and moulding material with interlocked or wavy grain.

Resistance to Impregnation
Resistant heartwood
Resistant sapwood
Permeable sapwood
Sapwood is permeable
Heartwood is extremely resistant
Heartwood is resistant


Resistance to Splitting
Poor


Response to Hand Tools
Responds Readily
Easy to Work
Moderate working qualities
Easy to machine
Response to hand tools is fair


Routing & Recessing
Fair to Good Results
Fairly Easy to Very Easy


Sanding
Fair to Good Results
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Good sanding finish
Easy to sand

The material is fairly difficult to sand

Turning
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Fair to Good Results
Good results
Easy to turn


Veneering Qualities
No steaming needed during bolt preparation.
Good gluing qualities
Easy to cut
Suitable for slicing


Steam Bending
Fairly well defined


Polishing
Fair to Good Results
Surface Preparation
Fairly Difficult to Very Difficult
Good results
Polishing properties are rather good


Staining
Finish is generally good
Takes finishes rather well

There is a tendency for some finishes to bleed, but reports indicate that water-based finishes hold color better. The use of spirit finishes are reported to remove the purple coloring in the wood.

Strength Properties
Density (dry weight) = 53-60 lbs/cu. ft
Bending strength (MOR) = high
Shearing strength (parallel to grain) = medium
Modulus of Elasticity (stiffness) = high
Max. crushing strength = high
Max. crushing strength = very high
Hardness (side grain) = hard
Bending strength (MOR) = very high
Shrinkage, Tangential = moderate
Shrinkage, Tangential = fairly large
Shrinkage, Radial = small
Max. crushing strength = medium
Density (dry weight) = 61-67 lbs/cu. ft
Density (dry weight) = 46-52 lbs/cu. ft.
Weight = very heavy
Shrinkage, Tangential = small
Shrinkage, Radial = very small
Shrinkage, Radial = large
Shrinkage, Radial = fairly large
Modulus of Elasticity (stiffness) = very high
Hardness (side grain) = medium
Density = very high
Bending strength in the air-dry condition (about 12 percent moisture content) is very high
Bending strength (MOR) = medium

It is hard, and quite resistant to denting

Numerical Data
ItemGreenDryEnglish
Bending Strength1477621353psi
Crushing Strength14992327.psi
Density53lbs/ft3
Hardness2028lbs
Maximum Crushing Strength756310853psi
Shearing Strength2235psi
Static Bending917312515psi
Stiffness214724601000 psi
Toughness220inch-lbs
Work to Maximum Load1216inch-lbs/in3
Specific Gravity0.630.69
Weight5443lbs/ft3
Radial Shrinkage3%
Tangential Shrinkage6%
Volumetric Shrinkage10%
ItemGreenDryMetric
Bending Strength10381501kg/cm2
Crushing Strength105163.kg/cm2
Density849kg/m3
Hardness919kg
Maximum Crushing Strength531763kg/cm2
Shearing Strength157kg/cm2
Static Bending644879kg/cm2
Stiffness1501721000 kg/cm2
Toughness253cm-kg
Work to Maximum Load0.841.12cm-kg/cm3
Specific Gravity0.630.69
Weight865689kg/m3
Radial Shrinkage3%
Tangential Shrinkage6%

References
Bodig, J. and B. A. Jayne. 1982. Mechanics of Wood and Wood Composites. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York.

Boone, R.S., C.J. Kozlik, P.J. Bois, E.M. Wengert. 1988. Dry Kiln Schedules for Commercial Hardwoods - Temperate and Tropical. USDA, Forest Service, General Technical Report FPL-GTR-57, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin.

Brown, W.H.,1978,Timbers of the World, No. 2 South America,TRADA, Red Booklet Series

Chichignoud, M., G. Deon, P. Detienne, B. Parant and P. Vantomme. 1990. Tropical Timber Atlas of Latin America. International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO, Centre Technique Forestier Tropical, Division of CIRAD, 45 bis Avenue de la Belle Gabrielle, Nogent-sur-Marne, CEDEX, France.

Chudnoff, M.,1984,Tropical Timbers of the World,U.S.A. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products,Laboratory, Madison.

Erfurth, T., Rusche, H.,1976,The Marketing of Tropical Wood B. Wood Species from S. American Tropical,Moist Forests,F.A.O. Forestry Department

Fanshawe, D.B.,1948,Studies of the Trees of British Guiana Part 3,Tropical Woods,12(93,pp1-28

HMSO. 1981. Handbook of Hardwoods, 2nd Edition. Revised by R.H. Farmer, Department of the Environment, Building Research Establishment, Princes Risborough Laboratory, Princes Risborough, Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire.

Jackson, A. and D. Day. 1991. Good Wood Handbook - The Woodworker's Guide to Identifying, Selecting and Using the Right Wood. Betterway Publications, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Kaiser, J. 1990. Wood of the Month Annual - Purpleheart:The Beautiful Oddball. Supplement to Wood and Wood Products, September, 1990. Page 8A.

Kaiser, J. 1992. Wood of the Month: Purpleheart - The Versatile Purple Wood. Wood & Wood Products, July, 1992. Page 62.

Kline, M. 1980. Peltogyne paniculata - Purpleheart. In a Guide to Useful Woods of the World. Flynn Jr., J.H. Editor. King Philip Publishing Co., Portland, Maine. 1994. Page 262-263.

Lavers, G.M. 1967. The Strength Properties of Timbers. Forest Products Research Bulletin, No. 50 (Spersedes Bulletin No. 45). Ministry of Technology, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London.

Lincoln, W.A. 1986. World Woods in Color. Linden Publishing Co. Inc., Fresno, California.

Longwood, F.R.,1962,Commercial Timbers of the Caribbean,U.S.A. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook,No.207

Nairn, P.M., Editor. 1936. Wood Specimens - 100 Reproductions in Color - A Series of Selected Timbers Reproduced in Natural Color with Introduction and Annotations by H.A. Cox. The Nema Press, Proprietors of Wood, London.

NWFA. 1994. Wood Species Used in Wood Flooring. Technical Publication No. A200. National Wood Flooring Association, Manchester, MO.

Sallenave, P.,1955,Proprietes Phyiques et Mecaniques des Bois Tropicaux de l'Union Francaise,C.T.F.T

Takahashi, A.,1975,Compilation of data on the Mechanical Properties of Foreign Woods (Part 2,Central and South America,Shimane University, Japan, Research Report on Foreign Wood No.4

Vink, A.T.,1965,Surinam Timbers,Surinam Forest Service Paramaribo,3rd rev. ed.

Wangaard, F.F., and A.F. Muschler. 1952. Tropical Woods - Properties and Uses of Tropical Woods, Volume III, No. 98. School of Forestry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.

Wangaard, F.F., W.L. Stern, and S.L. Goodrich. 1955. Tropical Woods - Properties and Uses of Tropical Woods, Volume V, No. 103. School of Forestry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.








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