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Blunting Effect
Comments
Common Names
Common Uses
Countries of Distribution
Cutting Resistance
Distribution Overview
Drying Defects
Ease of Drying
Environmental Profile
Family Name
Gluing
Grain
Heartwood Color
Kiln Schedules
Luster
Movement in Service
Nailing
Natural Durability
Natural Growth Defects
Numerical Data
Odor
Painting
Planing
Polishing
Product Sources
References
Regions of Distribution
Resin Content
Resistance to Impregnation
Response to Hand Tools
Sanding
Sapwood Color
Scientific Name
Screwing
Staining
Steam Bending
Strength Properties
Substitutes
Texture
Toxicity
Trade Name
Tree Size
Varnishing
Veneering Qualities

Scientific Name
Picea abies

Trade Name
Norway spruce

Family Name
Pinaceae

Wood Image 1

Wood Image 1

Common Names
Baltic white pine , Baltic whitewood, Common spruce, European spruce, European whitewood, Finnish whitewood, Fir, Gran, Northern whitewood, Norway spruce, Russian whitewood, Spruce, Spruce fir, Violin wood, White baltic, White deal, White fir, White pine, Whitewood

Regions of Distribution
Eastern Europe, Western Europe

Countries of Distribution [VIEW MAP]
Finland, Germany, Norway, Russia, Sweden, United Kingdom

Common Uses
Balusters, Boat building: masts, Boxes and crates, Building materials, Carvings, Casks, Ceiling, Cooperages, Core Stock, Decorative plywood, Decorative veneer, Domestic flooring, Drum sticks, Excelsior, Factory flooring, Figured veneer, Flooring, Food containers, Furniture, General carpentry, Interior construction, Joinery (external): ground contact, Joinery, Ladders, Light construction, Millwork, Mine timbers, Musical instruments , Musical instruments: piano, Musical instruments: strings, Organ pipes, Packing cases, Parquet flooring, Plain veneer, Plywood corestock, Plywood, Poles, Pulp/Paper products, Sounding boards, Stair rails, Stairworks, Stringers, Structural plywood, Sub-flooring, Utility plywood, Veneer, Violin bows, Violin, Wainscotting, Xylophones

Environmental Profile
Rare
Extinct
Endangered
Data source is World Conservation Monitoring Center

A sub-species, P. abies ssp. obovata , which is native to Norway, Finland, and Sweden, is currently classified as Rare within its natural habitat in Norway

Distribution Overview
The species is widely distributed throughout Europe, except in Denmark and the Netherlands. Although Norway spruce is native to and occurs in the wild over most of northern and central Europe, it is widely cultivated in the United Kingdom and southeastern Canada. It has also been successfully planted in the northeast, the Rocky Mountains, and the Pacific Coast regions in the United States. The tree usually grows in moist soils in humid, cool, temperate regions.

Heartwood Color
Brown
Red
White to cream
Yellow to golden-yellow to orange
Pinkish brown
Brown

The wood varies from almost white to pale yellow-brownish in color

Sapwood Color
Yellow
White
Color not distinct from heartwood


Grain
Figure
Growth rings (figure)
Straight
Even
Crossed
Spiral
Other (figure)
Weak (figure)

Clear growth rings (figure)
Straight
Weak figure
Spiral
Other figure
Generally straight, but not always

Growth rings are visible because of the contrast between the darker outer latewood and the lighter earlywood.

Texture
Fine
Medium


Luster
Slightly lustrous
Lustrous

The material possesses a natural luster

Natural Growth Defects
Latex or other ducts
Gum/resin streaks


Natural Durability
Non durable
Susceptible to attack by fungi
Sapwood is vulnerable to attack by furniture beetles
Resistant to attack from powder post (Lyctid & Bostrychid) beetles
Resistant to attack from pinworms (ambrosia beetles)
Pinworms (ambrosia beetles) are commonly present
Perishable
Moderately durable
Heartwood is vulnerable to attack by longhorn and pinhole borer beetles, and by wood wasps


Odor
No specific smell or taste


Resin Content
The tree produces resin. Resin exuded through the bark of the tree is called Burgundy pitch, and has been used to produce plasters

Toxicity
Respiratory effects
Dermatitic effects


Kiln Schedules
Drying (speed) is fast
Dry at a moderate speed


Drying Defects
Slight end splitting
Expect moderate degrade due to knots, splits, and loosening
Slight twist/warp
Slight surface checking
Moderate surface checking

There is little tendency for the wood to check and split during drying. Knots may split and loosen, and material with pronounced spiral grain may distort

Ease of Drying
Easy
Moderate
Requires care to minimize degrade
Dries rapidly
Air-dries rather well


Tree Size
Tree height is 0-10 m
Tree height is 10-20 m
Tree height is 20-30 m


The large tree usually has a straight trunk and grows to a height of about 80 feet (24 m), with a diameter of about 24 inches (60 cm). The young trees are used for Christmas trees.

Product Sources
Much of Norway spruce bes imported into the United Kingdom from Russia and Scandinavia under the trade name of Whitewood or White deal.

Substitutes
Simarouba (Simarouba amara)

Comments
General finishing qualities are rated as good

Blunting Effect
Blunting effect on machining is variable
Blunting effect on machining is slight
Blunting effect on machining is moderate

Blunting effect on cutting edges is slight, but hard, dead knots may damage tool edges

Cutting Resistance
Rather low


Gluing
Easy to glue
Moderate gluing properties
Glues well


Movement in Service
Small
Stable
Moderate stability when properly seasoned
Medium
Medium movement in use.


Nailing
Holds nails well
Easy to nail
Good nailing characteristics


Planing
Difficult to plane

Knotty wood requires sharp cutting edges for best results, because tear may occur around knots in planing. Clear stock works easily with both hand and machine tools in planing, turning, boring, moulding, and in most wood working operations to produce smooth and clean surfaces

Resistance to Impregnation
Resistant sapwood
Resistant heartwood
Heartwood is resistant
Heartwood is permeable
Poor response to preservative treatment


Response to Hand Tools
Easy to machine
Very sharp cutting edges are required to produce a smooth surface
Variable qualities
Responds well to hand tools
Moderate working qualities
Difficult to machine


Sanding
Good sanding properties


Screwing
Screwing yields good results
Easy to screw


Veneering Qualities
There is slight to moderate drying degrade and the potential for buckles and splits
No drying degrade. Dries flat without splitting
Moderately easy to veneer
Easy to cut


Steam Bending
Very poor


Painting
Good results
Takes paint well
Satisfactory results


Polishing
Good results


Staining
Finish is generally good
Good staining qualities
Finish is generally satisfactory


Varnishing
Good results
Satisfactory


Strength Properties
Density (dry weight) = 23-30 lbs/cu. ft.
31-37 lbs/cu. ft.
Low
Hardness (side grain) = very soft
Shrinkage, Radial = very small
Shearing strength (parallel to grain) = very low
Shrinkage, Tangential = small
Medium
Max. crushing strength = low
Toughness-Hammer drop (Impact Strength) = very low
Toughness (total work) = very low
Small
Mor/Bending strength = very low
Modulus of Elasticity (stiffness) = very low
Moderate
Max. crushing strength = very low
Low
Low
Low
Fairly large
15-22 lbs/cu. ft.


Trength properties are reported to vary widely and are dependent upon origin, but the timber is comparable to Redwood (Sequoia) in most respects. It has medium bending strength in the air-dry condition (about 12 percent moisture content). It is closer in strength to Mahogany than either Teak or White oak. It is weak in compression parallel to grain (maximum crushing strength). The wood is soft, and surfaces may dent easily. It also does not wear well, and mars easily. Wood is low in weight, and has average, or medium, density. Wood produced by Spruce trees from central and eastern Europe possesses exceptional resonance qualities and is used for sound boards of pianos and bellies of violins and guitars.
Work to Maximum Load

Numerical Data
ItemGreenDryEnglish
Bending Strength52999128psi
Density28lbs/ft3
Hardness377lbs
Impact Strength1917inches
Maximum Crushing Strength28165149psi
Shearing Strength1138psi
Stiffness112114061000 psi
Toughness130inch-lbs
Work to Maximum Load69inch-lbs/in3
Specific Gravity0.310.43
Weight2525lbs/ft3
Radial Shrinkage2%
Tangential Shrinkage7%
ItemGreenDryMetric
Bending Strength372641kg/cm2
Density448kg/m3
Hardness171kg
Impact Strength4843cm
Maximum Crushing Strength197362kg/cm2
Shearing Strength80kg/cm2
Stiffness78981000 kg/cm2
Toughness149cm-kg
Work to Maximum Load0.420.63cm-kg/cm3
Specific Gravity0.310.43
Weight400400kg/m3
Radial Shrinkage2%

References
Bolza, E.,1976,Timber and Health,Div. Building Res. C.S.I.R.O. Australia

Brown, W.H.,1978,Timbers of the World, No. 6 Europe,TRADA, Red Booklet Series

Clifford, N.,1957,Timber Identification for the Builder and Architect,Leonard Hill (Books) LTD. London

Dallimore, W. and Jackson, A. Bruce,1966,A Handbook of Coniferae and Ginkgoaceae Fourth Ed. Revised by S.G.,Harrison,Edward Arnold (Publishers) Ltd. London

Findlay, W.P.K.,1975,Timber: Properties and Uses,Crosby Lockwood Staples London,224PP

Forest Products Research Laboratory U.K.,1957,A Handbook of Softwoods,Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Forest Products Research,HMSO

Forest Products Research Laboratory, U.K.,1937,A Handbook of Home-Grown Timbers,HMSO

Forest Products Research Laboratory, U.K.,1969,The Movement of Timbers,Forest Products Research Laboratory, Princes Risborough Technical Note,No.38

Howard, A.L.,1948,A Manual of Timbers of the World.,Macmillan & Co. Ltd. London 3rd ed.

I.U.F.R.O.,1973,Veneer Species of the World,Assembled at F.P.L. Madison on behalf of I.U.F.R.O. Working Party on,Slicing and Veneer Cutting

Jackson, A. and D. Day. 1992. Good Wood Handbook - The Wood worker's Guide to Identifying, Selecting and Using the Right Wood. HarperCollins Publishers, London

Kloot, N.H., Bolza, E.,1961,Properties of Timbers Imported into Australia,C.S.I.R.O. Forest Products Division Technological Paper,No.12

Lavers, G.M. 1966. The Strength Properties of Timbers. Forest Products Research Bulletin, No. 50. Ministry of Technology, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London.

Lavers, G.M.,1983,The Strength Properties of Timber (3rd ed. revised Moore G.L.,Forest Products Research Laboratory, Princes Risborough, Building Research,Establishment Report (formerly Bulletin No.50)

Lincoln, W.A. 1986. World Woods in Color. Linden Publishing Co. Inc., Fresno, California.

Little, E.L. 1980. The Audobon Society Field Guide to North American Trees - Western Region. Published by Arthur A. Knopf, New York.

Mitchell, A.F. 1985. Conifers. Forestry Commision Booklet No. 15. Forestry Commission, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London.

Nairn, P.M., Editor. 1936. Wood Specimens - 100 Reproductions in Color - A Series of Selected Timbers Reproduced in Natural Color with Introduction and Annotations by H.A. Cox. The Nema Press, Proprietors of Wood, London.

Patterson, D. 1988. Commercial Timbers of the World. Fifth Edition. Gower Technical Press, Aldershot, UK. ix + 339 pp.

Patterson, D.,1988,Commercial Timbers of the World, 5th Edition,Gower Technical Press

Redding, L.W.,1971,Resistance of Timbers to Impregnation with Creosote,Forest Products Research Laboratory, Princes Risborough, Building Research,Establishment Bulletin No.54 pp.43

Rendle, B.J.,1969,World Timbers (3 Vols.,Ernest Benn Ltd. London

Rijsdijk, L.F. and Laming, P.B.,1994,Physical and Related Properties of 145 Timbers, Information for,Practice,TNO Building and Construction Research Centre for Timber Research Kluwer,Academic Publishers

T.D.A.,1942,Timber Leaflet - No.48 Whitewood (Picea abies,TRADA Timber Leaflet

T.R.A.D.A.,1942,Home-grown timber trees - their characteristics, cultivation and Uses,TRADA

Timber Development Association Ltd.,1955,World Timbers (3 Vols.,Timber Development Association Ltd.

Titmuss, F.H. 1965. Commercial Timbers of the World. Third Edition (Enlarged of A ConRussiae Encyclopedia of World Timbers). The Technical Press Ltd., London.

Titmuss, F.H.,1965,Commercial Timbers of the World,Technical Press Ltd., London, 3rd edition

Wallis, N.K. 1956. Australian Timber Handbook. Sponsored by The Timber Development Association of Australia. Angus & Robertson, Ltd., 89 Castlereagh Street, Sydney, Australia.

WCMC. 1992. Conservation Status Listing - Trees and Timbers of the World. World Conservation Monitoring Center - Plants Programme, Cambridge, CB3 ODL, United Kingdom.








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