Search for  
 
 

top

Clickingany heading in the main data area (at right) will scroll the page backto this top position.

Use the following links tojump to the associated section in the main data.

Blunting Effect
Boring
Carving
Comments
Common Names
Common Uses
Countries of Distribution
Cutting Resistance
Distribution Overview
Drying Defects
Ease of Drying
Environmental Profile
Family Name
Gluing
Grain
Heartwood Color
Kiln Drying Rate
Kiln Schedules
Light-Induced Color Change
Luster
Mortising
Moulding
Movement in Service
Nailing
Natural Durability
Natural Growth Defects
Numerical Data
Odor
Painting
Planing
Polishing
Product Sources
References
Regions of Distribution
Resistance to Impregnation
Response to Hand Tools
Routing & Recessing
Sanding
Sapwood Color
Scientific Name
Screwing
Staining
Steam Bending
Strength Properties
Synonyms
Texture
Toxicity
Trade Name
Tree Size
Turning
Veneering Qualities

Scientific Name
Prunus serotina

Trade Name
Black cherry

Family Name
Rosaceae

Synonyms
Prunus salicifolia, Cerasus serotina


Wood Image 1

Wood Image 1

Wood Image 1

Wood Image 1

Wood Image 1

Wood Image 1

Wood Image 1

Wood Image 1

Wood Image 1

Wood Image 1

Common Names
American black cherry, Black cherry, Cabinet cherry, Capollin, Capuli, Capulin, Capulin cherry, Cerezo, Cerezo de Los Andes, Cherry, Chisos wild cherry, Choke cherry, Chokecherry, Detze, Edwards Plateau cherry, Escarpment cherry, Ghoto, Gila chokecherry, Mountain black cherry, Muji, New England mahogany, Pa-kshmuk, Plum, Rum cherry, Southwestern chokecherry, Spate traubenkirsche, Tnunday, Whiskey cherry, Wild black cherry, Wild cherry, Xeugua

Regions of Distribution
North America, Western Europe

Countries of Distribution [VIEW MAP]
Canada, Switzerland, United States

Common Uses
Bedroom suites, Boat building (general), Boat building, Bobbins, Building materials, Cabinetmaking, Canoes, Carvings, Caskets, Chairs, Chests, Coffins, Concealed parts (Furniture), Core Stock, Decorative veneer, Desks, Dining-room furniture, Dowell pins, Dowells, Drawer sides, Drum sticks, Figured veneer, Fine furniture, Floor lamps, Flooring, Furniture , Furniture components, Furniture squares or stock, Furniture, Handles: general, Hatracks, Interior construction, Interior trim, Joinery, Kitchen cabinets, Lifeboats, Living-room suites, Mathematical instruments, Millwork, Moldings, Musical instruments , Musical instruments, Musical instruments: piano, Novelties, Office furniture, Paneling, Plywood, Scientific instruments, Sculpture, Skis, Specialty items, Toys, Turnery, Veneer, Veneer: decorative, Woodenware

Environmental Profile
Extinct
Endangered
Widespread, abundant, and globally secure
Rare in some parts of its range, particularly at the periphery
Data source is Nature Conservancy


Distribution Overview
In North America, Black cherry is distributed in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Quebec, Alabama, Arkansas, Arizona, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Iowa, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Mississippi, North Carolina, Great Smoky Mountain National Park, Illinois, Georgia, North Dakota, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Vermont, Wisconsin, and West Virginia. It sometimes occurs in pure stands, and can thrive, with the exception of very wet or very dry soils, on many sites, including soil without much lime and good drainage. As many as five varieties of Black cherry are known.

Heartwood Color
Red
Brown
Yellow
Orange
Purple
Black
Pink
Reddish brown
Brown
Greenish to greyish
Dark brown
Red
Brown flecks and gum pockets may be present

Some flooring manufacturers are reported to steam Black cherry lumber to bleed the darker heartwood into the sapwood for a more uniform color. Color variations between boards are rather significant

Sapwood Color
White
Yellow
Brown
Green/Grey
White to yellow
Paler than heartwood
Whitish
White to light pink
Well defined
Pinkish
Bright orange red to reddish brown


Grain
Straight
Figure
Closed
Even
Rays (figure)
Wavy
Growth rings (figure)
Fine

Straight
Rays figure
Wavy
Grain is fine
Clear growth rings (figure)
Attractive dark wavy streaks

Strong resemblance to true Mahogany, and is often called New England mahogany. Pieces with dark wavy streaks which are described as striking in appearance are frequently found

Texture
Coarse
Medium
Fine
Fine
Fine and uniform


Luster
Low
Medium
High
Lustrous
Dull
Rich and satiny


Natural Growth Defects
Gum and mineral deposits


Natural Durability
Very durable
Resistant to termites
Durable
Non-resistant to marine borers
Susceptible to insect attack
Moderately durable
Resistant to powder post beetles
Moderately durable
Sapwood is vulnerable to attack by furniture beetles
Resistant to attack from powder post (Lyctid & Bostrychid) beetles
Non durable
Heartwood is very resistant to decay and termite attack

Natural resistance to decay is of little concern because of the typical uses of the wood.

Odor
Has an odor
No specific smell or taste


Light-Induced Color Change
Darker


Toxicity
Some toxic effects
Respiratory effects


Kiln Schedules
T8 - B4 (4/4) US
T5 -B3 (8/4) US
Dry at a slow speed


Drying Defects
Checking
Splitting
Distortion
Slight twist/warp
No twisting or warping
No surface checking
Weighing down stacks reduces warping
Slight surface checking
Slight collapse and honeycomb
Severe shrinkage may result
Moderate twist/warp
Drying degrade due to ring shakes is generally slight


Ease of Drying
Fairly Easy
Rapidly
Slowly
Reconditioning Treatement
Little degrade
Easy
Moderate
In rapid dryig the ratio of tangential to radial is more than twice
Dries rapidly
Controlled drying conditions will prevent rapid drying and yield best results.


Kiln Drying Rate
Naturally dries slowly
Slow
Naturally dries quickly
Drying rate is slow


Tree Size
Bole length is 10-20 m
Tree height is 20-30 m
Tree height is 30-40 m
Trunk diameter is 100-150 cm
Trunk diameter is 150-200 cm
Bole length is 20-30 m
Tree height is 40-50 m
Sapwood width is 5-10 cm
Bole length is 0-10 m


Black cherry is the largestof all North American cherries. The trees are famous for their wood, but they are also attractive, flowering species

Product Sources
States in the United States that lead in the production of cherries in commercial quantities are reported to include Michigan, Washington, Oregon, Utah, California, New York, Pennsylvania, and Idaho.

The popularity of cherry in the furniture market has increased over the years because of its warmth, personality, and ease of use. The price of cherry is based on the absence of each of the three basic characteristics of the wood: gum or pockets and streaks, pin knots, and figures. The wood is usually graded by the amount of character it has, and cherry without any figure markings is rather difficult to find. Cherry lumber is slightly more expensive than oak.

Comments
General finishing qualities are rated as good

The use of UV light inhibitors in coatings has been suggested to prevent the color change.

Blunting Effect
Moderate
Little
Medium effect
Blunting effect on machining is slight


Boring
Fair to good results
Fairly easy to very easy
Fairly difficult to very difficult
Little variation of hole size
Bores smoothly

Number of good to excellent pieces after boring one hundred pieces = 100

Carving
Fair to Good Results
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Fairly Difficult to Very Difficult


Cutting Resistance
Fairly Difficult to Very Difficult to saw
Easy to saw
Moderate to saw
Cutting Resistance with green wood is easy
Cutting Resistance with dry wood is easy
Excellent surfaces


Gluing
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Fair to Good Results
Easy to glue
Moderate gluing properties
Glues very well


Mortising
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Fair to Good Results
Fairly Difficult to Very Difficult
There is a 100% average of excellent results
Excellent mortising properties


Moulding
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Fair to Good Results
Very Good to Excellent Results
Fairly Difficult to Very Difficult
Responds well (an average of 80% yield good results)


Movement in Service
Excellent Stability - Small Movement
Fair to Good Stability - Medium Movement
Stable
Retain shape after manufacture
Dimensionally stable after seasoning


Nailing
Fairly Difficult to Very Difficult
Fair to Good Results
Pre-Boring Recommended
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Very Good to Excellent Results
Good nailing properties


Planing
Fair to Good Results
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Fairly Difficult to Very Difficult
Very Good to Excellent Results
Planes well, to a good finish
Reduction of cutting angle recommended
Excellent planing qualities
Easy to plane
Areas of irregular grain tend to tear surfaces
80 out of a 100 yield perfect results


Resistance to Impregnation
Resistant heartwood
Resistant sapwood
Permeable sapwood
Heartwood is moderately resistant


Response to Hand Tools
Easy to Work
Responds Readily
Fairly Difficult to Difficult to Work
Easy to machine
Moderate working qualities
Generally good response


Routing & Recessing
Fair to Good Results
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Fairly Difficult to Very Difficult


Sanding
Fair to Good Results
Fairly Easy to Very Easy


Screwing
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Fair to Good Results
Very Good to Excellent Results
Fairly Difficult to Very Difficult
Screwing yields good results
Holds screws well


Turning
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Fair to Good Results
Good results
Finish is generally satisfactory
Easy to turn
88% of pieces turn with excellent results


Veneering Qualities
Veneers easily
Suitable for peeling
Veneers moderately easy
Various figures can yield decorative veneers
No drying degrade. Dries flat without splitting
Moderately easy to veneer

Black cherry crotches and burls are highly sought after for figured veneers.

Steam Bending
Fair to Good Results
Unsuitable
Fairly Difficult to Very Difficult
Good

It has been compared to Beech and Ash in steam bending properties

Painting
Good results


Polishing
Fair to Good Results
Very Good to Excellent Results
Surface Preparation
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Fairly Difficult to Very Difficult
Good results


Staining
Fair to Good Results
Very Good to Excellent Results
Surface Preparation
Fairly Easy to Very Easy
Fairly Difficult to Very Difficult
Stains very well
Finish is generally good

Finished Cherry wood is very handsome because of its rich luster and reddish brown color which turns richer and darker with age. Addition of ultra-violet light inhibitors has been suggested to prevent color change.

Strength Properties
Density (dry weight) = 31-37 lbs/cu. ft.
Max. crushing strength = medium
Hardness (side grain) = soft
Modulus of Elasticity (stiffness) = low
Bending strength (MOR) = low
Toughness-Hammer drop (Impact Strength) = low
Shrinkage, Tangential = moderate
Shrinkage, Radial = small
Density (dry weight) = 38-45 lbs/cu. ft.
Bending strength (MOR) = medium
Work to Maximum Load
Toughness-Hammer drop (Impact Strength) = medium
Max. crushing strength = low
Hardness (side grain) = very soft
Bending strength (MOR) = high

American Black cherry has been described as a wood with many moods, and is usually considered to be in the same class as mahogany for usage in the United States

Numerical Data
ItemGreenDryEnglish
Bending Strength761212363psi
Crushing Strength402946psi
Density34lbs/ft3
Hardness788lbs
Impact Strength3734inches
Maximum Crushing Strength35867015psi
Shearing Strength1559psi
Static Bending35289702psi
Stiffness138316271000 psi
Work to Maximum Load1010inch-lbs/in3
Specific Gravity0.450.51
Weight3534lbs/ft3
Radial Shrinkage3%
Tangential Shrinkage7%
Volumetric Shrinkage12%
ItemGreenDryMetric
Bending Strength535869kg/cm2
Crushing Strength2866kg/cm2
Density544kg/m3
Hardness357kg
Impact Strength9386cm
Maximum Crushing Strength252493kg/cm2
Shearing Strength109kg/cm2
Static Bending248682kg/cm2
Stiffness971141000 kg/cm2
Work to Maximum Load0.700.70cm-kg/cm3
Specific Gravity0.450.51
Weight560544kg/m3
Radial Shrinkage3%
Tangential Shrinkage7%

References
Bolza, E.,1976,Timber and Health,Div. Building Res. C.S.I.R.O. Australia

Boone, R.S., C.J. Kozlik, P.J. Bois and E.M. Wengert. 1988. Dry Kiln Schedules for Commercial Woods: Temperate and Tropical. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, General Technical Report FPL-GTR-57, Madison, Wisconsin.

Brenan, J.P.M., Greenway, P.J.,1949,Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire,Imperial Forestry Institute, Oxford No.5 Tanganyika Territories Part 2

Brown, H.P. and Panshin, A.J.,1940,Commercial Timbers of the United States Their structure, identification,,properties and uses,McGraw-Hill, London

Brown, W.H.,1978,Timbers of the World: - No.7 North America,TRADA

California Department of Forestry. Comparative Physical & Mechanical Properties of Western & Eastern Hardwoods. Prepared by Forest Products Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California. n/d.

Canadian Forestry Service. 1981. Canadian Woods - Their Properties and Uses. Third Edition. E.J. Mullins and T.S. McKnight, Editors. Published by University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Canada.

Clifford, N.,1957,Timber Identification for the Builder and Architect,Leonard Hill (Books) LTD. London

Forest Products Research Laboratory U.K.,1957,A Handbook of Softwoods,Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Forest Products Research,HMSO

Gatchell, C.J.,1971,American Woods - Black Cherry,USDA, Forest Service American Woods FS-229

Gomes Mauro, J., Occhioni, P.,1954,Pulping of Latin-American Woods,U.S.A. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products,Laboratory, Madison Report,2012,964

Harrar, E.S.,1942,Some Physical Properties of Modern Cabinet Woods 3. Directional and Volume,Shrinkage,Tropical Woods,9(71, pp26-32

Howard, A.L.,1948,A Manual of Timbers of the World.,Macmillan & Co. Ltd. London 3rd ed.

I.U.F.R.O.,1973,Veneer Species of the World,Assembled at F.P.L. Madison on behalf of I.U.F.R.O. Working Party on,Slicing and Veneer Cutting

Jackson, A. and D. Day. 1991. Good Wood Handbook - The Woodworker's Guide to Identifying, Selecting and Using the Right Wood. Betterway Publications, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Kaiser, J. 1992. Wood of the Month - Cherry: The Handsome, Regal Fruitwood. Wood & Wood Products, March, 1992. Page 48.

Kaiser, J. 1989. Wood of the Month - Cherry: 'New England Mahogany' is in Style Again. Wood of the Month Annual, Supplement to Wood of the Month, Volume 1, Page 22.

Kaiser, J. 1994. Wood of the Month - Cherry: An American Tradition for Fine Furniture. Wood and Wood Products, December, 1994. Page 48.

Kline, M. 1977. Prunus serotina - Black cherry. In A Guide to Useful Woods of the World. Flynn Jr., J.H., Editor. King Philip Publishing Co., Portland, Maine. 1994. Page 291-291.

Kloot, N.H., Bolza, E.,1961,Properties of Timbers Imported into Australia,C.S.I.R.O. Forest Products Division Technological Paper,No.12

Kukachka, B.F.,1962,Characters of Some Imported Woods,U.S.A. Department of Agriculture, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison,,Foreign Wood Series,No.2242

Little, E.L. 1980. The Audobon Society Field Guide to North American Trees - Western Region. Published by Arthur A. Knopf, New York.

Markwardt, L.J., Wilson, T.R.C.,1935,Strength and related properties of woods grown in the United States,U.S.A. Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin,No.479

Mullins, E.J. and McKnight, T.S.,1981,Canadian Woods Their Properties and Uses,University of Toronto Press 3rd Edition

NWFA. 1994. Wood Species Used in Wood Flooring. Technical Publication No. A200. National Wood Flooring Association, Manchester, MO.

Panshin, A.J. and C. deZeeuw. 1980. Textbook of Wood Technology, 4th Edition. McGraw-Hill Series in Forest Resources. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.

Patterson, D.,1988,Commercial Timbers of the World, 5th Edition,Gower Technical Press

Record, S.J., Hess, R.W.,1943,Timbers of the New World,Yale University Press

Rendle, B.J. Editor. 1969. World Timbers, Volume Two - North & South America (Including Central America and the West Indies). Published by Ernest Benn Limited, Bouverie House, Fleet Street, London.

Rendle, B.J.,1969,World Timbers (3 Vols.,Ernest Benn Ltd. London

Stone, H.,1924,The Timbers of Commerce and their Identification,William Rider & Sons Ltd. London

Titmuss, F.H.,1965,Commercial Timbers of the World,Technical Press Ltd., London, 3rd edition

U.S.D.A. Forest Service,1974,Wood Handbook,U.S.A. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service Handbook,72

USDA. 1987. Wood Handbook - Wood as an Engineering Material, Forest Service, Agriculture Handbook No. 72, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin.�

USDA. 1988. Dry Kiln Operators Manual, Preliminary Copy. Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin.








Search the web for anything relating to wood and forest products.


























Search the web for anything relating to wood and forest products.